Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System/Geodatabase in River Flood Mapping

Amil T. Aghayev; Rustam B. Rustamov
Natural disasters drastically affect the Earth's inhabitants, causes loss of life, injuries, and damage or loss of valuable goods, such as buildings, communication systems, agricultural lands, forests, and natural environments. The economic losses resulting from natural disasters have shown an increase of scale as society undergoes globalization. There is no doubt that natural disasters need to minimize any possible risks. This makes it necessary to collect appropriate data through the monitoring process. In conformity with selected method and methodology, one must determine what kind of information is required for vital success in managing natural disasters and their consequences. Satellite data accessed by Remote Sensing is an excellent tool for natural disaster management purposes. Up to date technology achievements in space science and technology are making it possible to use a large number of multi-temporal spatial data for prevent, preparedness, and forecasting of natural disasters after appropriate data processing stages. During the last decades, the Remote Sensing method has become the best operational instrument for disaster preparedness and warning phases, including the disaster of floods. Using data from the Remote Sensing method is not possible without a proper tool to handle the large amount of data and combine it with data from different sources, such as maps, measurement stations, or field data. Therefore, Remote Sensing applications integrated into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have become increasingly important for disaster management processes. This paper is dedicated to build up a geodatabase for natural disaster management, mainly focusing on river flood impact, using Remote Sensing data and GIS. For this reason, a digital map of the selected Salyan plain area has been developed. The map development was very important due to the lack of such information before the study. This circumstance eliminates further implementations concerning the assessment of ecological, environmental, and other related aspects. For this purpose, the current stage has provided vectorisation of the boundaries of the area. The paper describes of method of approach in boundary definition and identification. This was achieved with the use of ArcGIS software within the data processing of space images, with further development of GIS technology. The use of indicated data processing has made possible to classify bounders with high accuracy. In conformity with methods for space image processing with GIS performance, maps have been developed that are integrated into classes of flood, hydrological points, 3D, and the Digital Elevation Model of the area.
Natural Disasters; Data Source; Features; Space Image Processing; River Flood; Digital Elevation Model (DEM); 3D; Remote Sensing (RS); Geographic Information System (GIS); Global Positioning System (GPS); ArcGIS; Geodatabase
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