Hydrology and Pollution in Coastal Zone of Carmen City: Relationships with Effluents of Urban Areas

Mirna Yolanda Sabido Perez; Nain Elvira Antonio; José del Carmen Zavala Loria; Silvia del Carmen Campos García; Yunuen Canedo López; Alejandro Ruiz Marin
City of Carmen is located within the natural reserve of Terminos Lagoon; Nevertheless, the high activity hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation and urban have increased in the last years and consequence a high generation of wastewater that flows into the beaches and the Terminos Lagoon. Therefore it is necessary studies of monitoring and hydrology for the ecosystem protection. This study evaluated and analyzed the variation hydrological present during the season characterized by strong winds, droughts and rains in beaches near the discharge of urban effluents. During north and rainy season the salinity decreased from 16-20 spu with better conditions for the survival of faecal coliforms (FC). A higher concentration of bacteria (790- 1700 MPN 100 ml-1) for rainy season was observed that dry season (30 to 120 MPN 100 ml-1). Similarly, higher levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was for north season (2.8 – 4.6 mg l-1) that for dry season (0.1 – 1.7 mg l-1). The high content of chlorophyll a and nitrogen during the dry season showed an important relationship; suggesting the contribution of nitrogen by the decomposition of organic matter from wastewater effluent of the channel Caleta, which received a high amount of wastewater. Despite that the BOD and bacteria concentrations exceed the acceptable levels during north season, suggesting a limited use of the beaches for recreational purpose; this is probably that the environmental conditions allow the dilution and dispersion of organic matter and bacteria, but the transportation of such pollutants can affect the adjacent beaches.
Wastewater; beach pollution; BOD and faecal coliforms; Terminos Lagoon
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