Volume 3 Issue 9
Authors: J. Iqbal; A. K. Gorai; P. Tirkey
Abstract: Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the most serious environmental problems in urban/industrial areas. Groundwater is one of the main sources of drinking water in Hazaribag District and hence its vulnerability assessment to delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination is very important. The present study aims to demonstrate AHP-GIS based DRASTIC model to estimate the relative probability of contamination of the groundwater resources in the selected study area. The study result reveals that the vulnerability index varying from 4.53 to 9.47 (Scale: Minimum possible Index- 1.00 and Maximum possible index- 9.84). The range of the vulnerability index has been classified into five classes (low, moderately low, moderate, moderately high, and high) and accordingly the whole study area is classified into five types of zones on the basis of vulnerability index. The study results delineate areas that are more susceptible to contamination due to the existing hydro-geologic factors and show areas of greatest potential for groundwater contamination.
Keywords: AHP; Groundwater Vulnerability Assessment; DRASTIC; GIS; Hazaribag District
Authors: C. Kapseu; A. Ali; J. M. Sieliechi; G.B. G.B. Noumi; M. Fadimatou
Abstract: The speciation of five trace metallic elements (Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu) in sediments from Lake Dang Ngaoundere Cameroon was carried out by the sequential extraction technique. Samples were collected in six points (waste water from the university hostels (WUH), from university restaurant (WUR), from vehicle washing stations (WWS), from cultivated areas (WGA), from neighbouring villages (WNV) and water out of lake (WOL)) around the lake during the rainy season. The metallic elements were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results of the sequential extraction revealed that apart from Ni, other elements were weakly adsorbed on the surface of sediments. Trace metallic elements were mostly present in the exchangeable or acido-soluble forms in sediments. Unlike Zn and Cu, other elements (Cr, Pb, Ni) were strongly trapped by oxides of iron, manganese and aluminum. From this study, it appears that WUH contributes to pollution of the lake due to the high content of the five elements (> 100 mg/Kg) found in the lake sediment. WUR and those of neighboring villages (WNV) were rich in Cr (158.78±0.83 and 427.85±1.74 mg/kg respectively). WGA also contributed to pollution of the lake due to the presence of Ni (1020.09±4.75) mg/kg, Cr (251.80±1.14) mg/kg and Pb (208.98±1.74) mg/kg revealed in it.
Keywords: Speciation; Sediments; Lake Dang; Heavy Metal; Pollution
Authors: Biljana Balabanova; Traj?e Stafilov; Robert ?ajn; Katerina Ba?eva
Abstract: Monitoring using soil samples (topsoil-TS and subsoil-SS) was conducted in area where copper minerals are intensively exploited. Characterization was conducted based on 18 elements: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Ga, Li, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn. The main pollutant was Cu (average value 190 mg kg-1; max. value 1200 mg kg-1 and the enrichment factor of TS/SS of ~10). The lithogenic elements (Al, Ga, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr) showed stability in the vertical direction (TS/SS); but in a across direction the element concentrations fluctuated according to the geology of the region. The element contents were also characterized according to land use. Maximum values for Cr, Ni and Pb were found in cultivated area (290 mg kg-1, 190 mg kg-1 and 130 mg kg-1, respectively). Using factor analysis, the distribution was reduced to three synthetic variables, which showed linkage in terms of geochemical similarities: F1 (Al-Ca-Cr-Fe-Mg-Mo), F2 (Li-Mn-Na-Ni-Pb) and F3 (Ba-Sr), accounting for 77% of the variability of analyzed elements. Spatial distribution of As, Cu, Pb, V and Zn showed that these elements are preferentially deposited in mine vicinity; due to dust deposition from ore and flotation tailings.
Keywords: Copper Mine; Toxic Metals; Spatial Distribution; Soil Pollution