Volume 3 Issue 12
Authors: S.D. Pawar
Abstract: The air ions are generated through thunder clouds, corona discharge, plant transpiration, combustion, waterfalls, wave breaking on water, splashing of raindrops and finally due to friction between two air levels and colliding of two air masses of different density and moisture. Seasonal variations of ions in atmospheric air have been investigated using Gerdien type air ion counter. This air ion counter is indigenously designed and developed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pune and operated at rural site Ramanandnagar. Positive and negative air ion concentration varies according to meteorological parameters temperature, relative humidity, and cloud cover. As average temperature increases from March to May relative humidity and cloud cover in the sky decreases, then both positive and negative ion concentration decreases from March to May and minimum-is observed in May. Meteorological parameters such as rain fall and wind speed also affects the concentration of positive and negative ions. Pollution index in January was 1.48, which is harmful to human health. Lowest value of pollution index is observed in October. Then as compared to all other months October is healthier to human health.
Keywords: Cluster ions; Plant Transpiration; Aerosol; Pollution Index and Radioactivity
Authors: Maher Elbayoumi; Nor Azam Ramli; Noor Faizah Fitri Md Yusof; Wesam Al Madhoun
Abstract: In the first decade of the 21st century, previous studies showed good evidence that fine particulate matter pollution adversely affects the health of children and adults. Effects are wide ranging, and include reduced lung function, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma attacks, and increase hospitalizations related to respiratory and cardiac. In Gaza strip the rates of previous disease increases during the last decade due to the increase in the concentration of fine particulate in the ambient air. The aims of this study were to (1) Monitor the indoors and outdoors mass concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, PM1.0) in 12 naturally ventilating schools (36 classroom) in United Nations Schools in Gaza Strip; (2) Assess the effect of outdoor pollutant concentrations on the indoor concentrations by using indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios; and (3) Estimate the inhalation potential dose of fine particulate during student’s activities. Fine particulate (PM2.5, PM1.0) were measured during winter season in 2012 for one and a half month. In each classroom and outdoor fine particulate (PM2.5, PM1.0) were measured during school hours from 07:00 am to 12:00 am. Meanwhile, data on student’s activities during school hours were gathered. The results show that the indoor PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 197.4 and 34.6 µg/m3 respectively and the outdoor PM2.5 and PM1.0 were 134.7 and 32.3 µg/m3 respectively. Moreover, results show that the I/O ratios for most of school was close to unity but there was statistically significant difference in the mean value of I/O for both PM2.5 and PM1.0 among schematic building schools of 95% confidence interval (CI). The calculated mean value of potential dose and 95 percentile value shows that children inhaled a huge value of fine particulate matter during school day and the physical activities contribute to 50 percent of exposure.
Keywords: PM2.5; PM1.0; Potential Dose; Physical Activities; Schools Children; Indoor Air Quality
Authors: Evelyn G. Reátegui-Zirena; Alicia Whatley; Fred Chu-Koo; Paul M. Stewart
Abstract: Oil industry activities such as exploration, transportation, storage, use and disposal, and oil spills are sources of major contamination problems in Peru with deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine reference contaminant acute toxicity in red pacu Piaractus brachypomus, and 2) assess the acute median lethal toxicity of crude oil in red pacu Piaractus brachypomus and fathead minnow Pimephales promelas. Results showed that median lethal concentration (LC50) values for two reference toxicants in Piaractus brachypomus were: zinc sulfate = 5.74 mg/l, sodium dodecyl sulfate = 11.29 mg/l. Peruvian crude oil was tested on Piaractus brachypomus; the LC50 was found to be > 4.00 mg TPH/l and the median lethal loading (LL50) was found to be > 50000 mg/l; in comparison, the LC50 of the Peruvian crude oil in Pimephales promelas was 1.83 mg TPH/l, and the LL50 was 22875 mg/l. Piaractus brachypomus was also exposed to Louisiana sweet crude oil and the LL50 was 17678 mg/l. Results suggested that the acute toxicity of the three reference toxicants on Piaractus brachypomus was within the range of other published studies on fish, and that this species was more tolerant to the Peruvian crude oil than Pimephales promelas. Based on the acute toxicity tests in Piaractus brachypomus, the Louisiana sweet crude oil was more toxic than the Peruvian crude oil. This study is one of the few toxicity studies using Peruvian crude oil and the first using Piaractus brachypomus as the test species. Further research on additional species and other toxicants related to oil contamination is necessary to assess the effects of this growing industry on the aquatic environment.
Keywords: Acute Toxicity; Piaractus brachypomus; Crude Oil; Reference Toxicant
Authors: Sridhar Pilli; M.M. Ghangrekar; R.D. Tyagi; R.Y. Surampalli
Abstract: The novelty of this study is evaluating the performance of membrane-less microbial fuel cell (ML-MFC) after non-feeding conditions for a few days. Results showed that there was no effect of non-feeding condition up to two weeks on organic matter removal as well as electricity production upon restart. Moreover, effect of formation of cathode biofilm at organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 0.33 to 1.25 kg COD/m3 d on performance of ML-MFC was evaluated. Although biocathodes are reported to improve performance of the MFC, formation of thicker biofilm on the cathode was observed to reduce power output. However, it contributed to increasing organic matter removal. At OLR of 1.25 kg COD/m3 d the COD removal efficiency was greater than 92%. Maximum TKN and removal of 96.89% and 97.38%, respectively, was observed at this loading. The maximum power density and current density of 3.76 mW/m2 and 14.79 mA/m2, respectively, was observed at OLR of 1.25 kg COD/m3 d, demonstrating the utility of ML-MFC for wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity harvesting.
Keywords: MFC; Wastewater Treatment; Electricity Generation; Biofilm; Shutdown