Volume 6 Issue 2
Authors: Babatunde Oniemayin; PraiseGod Emenike; Imokhai Tenebe; Oluwatobi Bamgbelu; David Omole
Abstract: Groundwater is the most accessed freshwater source in Nigeria. However, the groundwater resource sector of Nigeria is confronted with pollution problems arising from both natural causes and human activities. The current study examines the case of a faith-based campus whose water needs are 100 % serviced via groundwater. The campus accommodates about 15,000 full residents and 400, 000 weekly visitors. The campus water supply is sourced from 15 functional boreholes which are pumped directly into elevated tanks. Four replicate water samples were obtained from four tap points which are supplied by four different elevated water tanks within the campus. The water samples were analyzed for physicochemical contaminants using standard methods. This was done to confirm the potability of the water which is being consumed by residents. Results of the analysis of the groundwater in the study area showed that all the water samples met the minimum requirements of the National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) for pH, sulphate, nitrate, chloride and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). However, all the water samples exceeded the NSDWQ limit of 400 mg/L for hardness. Cadmium was also found to exceed the NSDWQ limit of 0.003 mg/L in all water samples while 50 % of the water samples slightly exceeded the 0.5 mg/L limit for Iron. The presence of cadmium in most of the water sample suggests that there is high risk in consuming water from these boreholes. Due to the life-threatening effect of cadmium on humans, it was concluded that water from the study area should not be consumed without treatment.
Keywords: Ground Water; Water Quality; Standards; Ota; Physico-Chemical Parameter
Authors: Mohd Elmuntasir Ahmed; Abdallah Abusam; Andrzej Mydlarczyk
Abstract: This paper delivers on the biodegradation kinetics of an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor using experimental data and a mathematical model under two operational conditions, employing different quantities of granular activated carbon (GAC) as a biological growth support medium. A mathematical model based on Monod kinetics was validated using the experimental data by employing estimated kinetic parameters and values from the literature for other parameters of the process. The mathematical model was found to describe the process well at a steady state and to a lesser extent, at transient state operation. Under chemostat conditions, the process was found to be mainly limited by the high microorganisms decay rate, specific utilization rate and limitation imposed by the substrate availability.
Keywords: Industrial Wastewater Treatment; Petrochemical Wastewater; Integrated Film Activated Sludge Processes; Granular Activated Carbon; Mathematical Modelling