Volume 2 Issue 2
Authors: Haq Nawaz Abbasi; Aziz-ur-Rahman; Syed Muhammad Yahya
Abstract: In this study, statistical techniques such as regression analysis is applied to water quality data set monitored during Pre and Post monsoon 2008 and 2009 to investigate in the extent of pollution and seasonal variation in river Indus waters. The variables were pH, BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid), TDS (Total Dissolve Solid), alkalinity, Cl-, HCO3-, SO4-2, Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+ and K+. Regression equations established between above parameters and dependent variable such as electrical conductivity, which caused to predict the value of one parameter, if value of other is known. The above study provides us a tool to find the value of physico-chemical parameters and extent of pollution theoretically and seasonal variation, which is time saving as well as cost effective.
Keywords: Water Quality; Regression Analysis; Correlation; Indus River; Monsoon
Authors: Adeolu O. Aderemi; Adebayo A. Otitoloju
Abstract: Landfill fires are an ongoing, complex global concern as they pose a threat to the environment and human health through the hazardous chemical compounds they emit. They are usually caused deliberately or by spontaneous combustion of decomposing waste involving methane from landfill gas. They are prevalent in the dry season due to hotter temperatures in this period, when there is a greater chance of spontaneous combustion occurring. The danger and level of toxicity of the pollutants emitted depend on the length of exposure to them and the type of material that is burning. The risk posed by these fires is high in Nigeria where landfills are located within residential quarters, lack collection systems for landfill gas and harbour large volume of waste tyres. Of particular health concern are the tyre fires on these fills which burn for a long time allowing the build up of the by-products of combustion around surrounding homes. Burning tyres are known to emit dioxins and benzene derivatives which have been linked with reproductive impairment and cancer in humans. It is therefore necessary to study these fires and their potential effects on human health. Effective landfill management by the operators is necessary to prevent the occurrence of these harmful fires. This paper attempts to give some insight into landfill fires and their potential health effects using an unsanitary landfill in Lagos, Nigeria as a case study. It calls for the need to construct and operate well-engineered municipal solid waste landfills that are regulated under strict federal and state regulations to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.
Keywords: landfill fires; spontaneous combustion; waste tyres; tyre fires; hazardous; dioxins; methane; health effects
Authors: Norah Basopo; Yogeshkumar S Naik
Abstract: Pesticides indirectly reach aquatic reservoirs via aerial drifts and as runoffs where they affect aquatic organisms. Aquatic reservoirs receive different pesticides from the different fields which usually surround them. However, studies investigating effects of pesticide mixtures on aquatic biota is limited. The effects of six pesticides and their mixtures on esterase activity of two freshwater snail species were investigated. Groups of snails were exposed to individual as well as mixtures of the pesticides for 96 hours before analysing for esterase activity. All pesticides inhibited esterase activity in exposed snails. Binary mixtures of pesticides caused additive or synergistic inhibitions of esterase activities when compared to effects of individual pesticides. The results indicated the importance of chemical interactions on the overall effects of pesticides on aquatic organisms.
Keywords: pesticide; binary mixtures; snails; esterases; inhibition
Authors: M.T. Alhattab; A.E. Ghaly
Abstract: Animal production is becoming more intensive and increases in efficiency have created a number of environmental and health problems. However, the efficiency of animal production and the quality of the environment must be tied together. A soilless nutrient film system was designed and constructed to purify the effluent from an anaerobic digester through the intensive production of forage crops. The system was composed of a growth chamber which consisted of three shelves each of which carried two hydroponic troughs. Each trough was divided into three compartments, each of which held a perforated tray used as a plant support medium. The lighting system was designed to provide an optimal level of illumination to the plants for growth. The effluent from the anaerobic digester was applied to the trays by means of fully automated wastewater application system. Tests showed that the system has the potential of producing 3.7 kg of forage per tray in 28 days and reducing the chemical oxygen demand from 23700 mg/L to less than 2220 mg/L (90.7 %), the total solids form 23920 mg/L to less than 1900 mg/L (90.7 %), the TKN form 3400 mg/L to less than 230 mg/L (93.8 %) and NH4-N from 520 mg/L to less than 110 mg/L (78.9 %). Based on the results, an annual yield of 8 670 kg/ha of forage could be produced which is 35 times greater than the yield obtained from field production. The system also eliminates the need for land, fertilizer, harvesting and transport equipment and the storage facilities associated with field production of forage crops.
Keywords: Purification; Wheat; Plant growth; Animal feed solids; COD; Nitrogen
Authors: Yu Yaguai
Abstract: Climate change has triggered a series of natural disasters. It is necessary to construct climate resilient city for sustainable development. It is necessary and useful to improve city resilient ability for deal with climate change from vulnerable perspective. According to local climate change and natural disaster characteristics, the proposals about planning climate resilient city and constructing disaster prevention and mitigation system are put forward.
Keywords: Climate Change; City Vulnerability; Climate Resilient City; Disaster Prevention and Mitigation System
Authors: Soumik Mitra; Vinit Sehgal; Sumit Mishra; Neeraj Kumar Sharma
Abstract: Coal Combustion produces huge amount of residues called as Coal Combustion Residues collectively. Nowadays, these are used for bulk utilisation applications like mine back filling, as agricultural amendments, in construction of roads, bricks etc. To achieve the maximum utilisation of coal combustion residues in diverse applications it is necessary to know about its various properties. An insight into physical properties of coal combustion residues is a must in order to apply it in construction and geotechnical applications. This paper aims at presenting the physical characteristics of these coal combustion residues from four different thermal power plants of India for their possible utilisation.
Keywords: Coal combustion residues; Fly ash; Bottom ash; Pond ash; Physical characteristics