Volume 2 Issue 3
Authors: Kazuhiro Ohnishi
Abstract: This paper studies a two-stage oligopoly model with donative most-favored-nation pricing. First, each profit- maximizing firm simultaneously and independently decides whether to offer a donative most-favored-nation policy as a strategic instrument. Second, each firm simultaneously and independently chooses its actual price. We find that the introduction of donative most-favored-nation pricing into the analysis of oligopoly competition is profitable for all firms.
Keywords: Oligopoly Model; Donative Most-Favored-Nation Pricing; Collusive Equilibrium
Authors: Lucia Marchegiani; Maria Elena Nenni; Enzo Peruffo; Luca Pirolo
Abstract: This paper is focused on the highly innovative R&D activities involving both private and public partners. The public goals pursued by these projects make them substantially different from the most common profit driven R&D ventures usually analyzed by the literature. In many cases, socio-political issues determine the decision to fund such projects within a specific initiative or sector. The lack of analytical tools to address this multiple stakeholders’ often-conflicting ventures is noticeable observing big ongoing projects where the risk of conflicts among public and private stakeholders may arise. We have validated the PPBM to the satellite services industry on the Emergency Response Core Services (ERCS).
Keywords: Business Model; Economic Sustainability; Value; Organization and Risk Management; Satellite Services
Authors: A. Abdollahi; M. Rashidinejad; M. M. Hosseini Bioki; H. R. Esmaeilian
Abstract: Electric vehicles have been the center of attention in recent years because they can be used to set up a bidirectional connection to the power grid. In such a scheme an aggregation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can be used to provide ancillary services for the power grid which is known as Vehicle to Grid (V2G) concept. Aggregation of these PHEVS can be parked in a parking lot which can be considered as a distributed generation unit. During off-peak hours, power grid provides electrical energy for charging the PHEVs in the parking lot and during peak hours the aggregation of PHEVs in the parking lot can give back some amount of their stored energy to the grid. In this paper, it is considered that the parking lot belongs to the Distribution Company (DisCo).The economic revenues and costs of constructing such a parking lot for a Distribution Company are modeled mathematically. Genetic algorithm is used to find the optimal number of the electric vehicles in the parking lot at each hour which can provide maximum benefit for the Distribution Company.
Keywords: Vehicle to Grid (V2G); Gridable Vehicles; Parking Lot; Distribution Company; Distributed Generation; Economic Analysis
Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi Khyareh
Abstract: This study investigates the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in Iran during 1955-2010 by using various models such as linear, quadratic and cubic to investigate the robust model for EKC hypothesis. The variables of GDP per capita and CO2 emissions were used as indicators of economic growth and environmental degradation, respectively. Moreover, a time trend T, was used as a proxy for technology change and environmental awareness. Results showed that among the various models, the cubic equation is a good description of the EKC hypothesis in Iran. All the GDP and the T2 factors seem to play a significant role in explaining the CO2 fluctuations. However, the T factor seems not to influence the CO2 emissions. In addition, Results showed that an inflection point could be found at a level of 5,344 in GDP in 2000 US dollars. This level of GDP was reached twice, once in 1972, after which there was a fall in GDP levels, and again in 2000. There was no maximum for the cubic equation, however. The estimation of quadratic maximum is around 11,044. This means that the two equations largely differ and, thus, the EKC does not hold in the case of Iran.
Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; CO2 Emission; Economic Growth; Iran
Authors: Konate Djibril; Aboubakar Coulibaly; Xiangrong Wang; Dembele Ousmane
Abstract: Many African cities are lack of green spaces. The green spaces are plots or spaces in the city developed for recreational, scientific and aesthetic purpose. It participates in urban dwellers well-being and provides them with health, calm and peace. In Abidjan as in many African cities, the use and management of these spaces are insufficiently appreciated. This paper is aimed to measure the use and management of Abidjan city’s green space by scrutinizing the behaviour of residents’ vis-à-vis of gardens, and appreciate the management pattern by authorities in order to determine the importance of green space in their culture. The paper begins with the study area and data collection method, then, the landscaping method, and the measure of green space use, and finally, the discussion about green spaces development.
Keywords: Green Space; Utility; Management; Use; Unattractiveness
Authors: Yongling Yao
Abstract: Intensive activities occur in urban areas with economic factors and population agglomerating near cities. This paper sets up the connection between the light brightness with DMSP-OLS images and the combined factors of population and gross domestic product (GDP) with an allometric model at the scale of prefecture-level cities in China. LS regression results show that economic factors predict human activities more than population factors do. It implies that mega cities with compact urban areas are most effective for human urban activities.
Keywords: Human Activities; GDP; Population; DMSP; Allometric Model; Correlation