Volume 2 Issue 8

Authors: Zhongyi Yang; Ken Nagasaka; Yanbin Hua

Abstract: The authors proposed a new concept for growing vegetable sprouts and ornamental plants by combining greenhouse design and soilless cultivation technology together with house construction. This new planting design of soilless structure is installed on the rooftop of a house, combined with a small household solar cell module; lightening system of energy-saving lamp and embedded cobblestones on the roof wall is not only fully utilizing the available energy, but also maximizing the preserved amount of heat energy. Considering the design idea, technological process, the selection of raw materials, along with their practical value and future prospects, the authors construct a double-layered, vertically cultivated vaulting greenhouse. As a result, the use of soilless cultivation techniques on the house rooftop in the Chinese countryside shows as the promising potential solution to deal with the shortage of arable land resources now. This new cultivation technique may be more effective in promoting agricultural productivity and sustainable development of the economy and society since it can take full advantage on available resources in order to achieve higher economic benefits. There are three major benefits for rooftop agriculture: 1) maximize the utilization of sunlight energy in the roof area; 2) roof agriculture doesn’t require any extra arable land; 3) the vegetables can be planted all year-round. The life circle of crops was shortened as found. This new design will increase economic efficiency and the value of the idle house rooftop in rural and suburban areas.

Keywords: Soilless Culture Facilities; Flat Roof Space in Rural Areas; Economical and Intensive Land Use; Solar Cell Module


Authors: Ashis Kumar Nanda; Amrita Das; Himangshu Shekhar Mandal

Abstract: Levels of physicochemical parameters (pH, phosphate, chloride, TKN, turbidity, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand, temperature, total hardness and total solid) were determined in the water samples collected from River Karola. The results of physicochemical analysis showed that phosphate and TKN were present in the water samples during dry season. Some of the physicochemical parameter values fall within WHO standard limits, some are not. Therefore, source protection is proposed for these bodies of water for the benefit of mankind because they were not safe for human consumption.

Keywords: River Karola; Pollution Status; Physicochemical Parameters; Water quality


Authors: Joshi Ritesh

Abstract: Out of the total nine species of vultures reported from the Indian sub-continent, six (Neophron percnopterus, Aegypius monachus, Sarcogyps calvus, Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus and Gyps himalayensis) were observed from Rajaji National Park, north India. The population of all the vultures was found to be stable except for Himalayan griffon, which was frequently observed in different altitudinal locations of the park. All the species were observed in small flocks (c 2–17) whereas only Himalayan griffon was observed in big flocks (c 3–38). Remarkably red-headed vulture, white-rumped vulture and long-billed vulture were continuously sighted, which were considered to be critically endangered species. A rise in vulture’s population was observed since 2007 and all the reported six species were seen on seasonal basis. Among six, three species are altitudinal migrant and three are resident however their ecological studies are still required, which would be helpful in knowing their population status, feeding requirements and range utilization. A ground–based strategy cum action plan is also needed to be documented and implemented so that we can ensure the endangered vulture’s survival in Rajaji National Park.

Keywords: Vulture; Rajaji National Park; Status; Conservation; North India


Authors: Moinuddin Sarker; Mohammad Mamunor Rashid; Muhammad Sadikur Rahman; Mohammed Molla

Abstract: Everyday the use of plastic is increasing because plastic has light weight and durability. After use, all plastics are thrown into garbage station because some plastic are one-off and creating plastic garbage. Worldwide PS waste plastic is generating 9-10%. Polystyrene plastic formula is C8H8 and this plastic has benzene compound. Thermal degradation processes PS waste plastic breakdown long chain to short chain hydrocarbon without using any kind of catalyst. Polystyrene waste plastic to light fractional fuel production processes was two steps process. 1st step process temperature range was 100-400 ºC for polystyrene waste plastic to polystyrene fuel production. 2nd step process was polystyrene fuel into light fractional aromatic hydrocarbon fuel production processes and temperature range was 40-60 ºC. Light fractional aromatic hydrocarbon fuel separation done by fractional distillation column process. 1st step PS waste plastic to liquid fuel density is 0.88 gm/ml and 2nd step light fractional liquid fuel density is 0. 84 gm/ml. Produced fuel was analyzed by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Differential Scanning Calorimeter to determine liquid fuel compound structure, fuel band energy and fuel boiling point.

Keywords: Waste Plastic; Aromatic; Hydrocarbon; Fuel; Polystyrene; Low Temperature; Fractional Distillation


Authors: G. J. Kayem; R. Kamga; S. K. Ndi; B. S. Lartiges; J. M. Siéliéchi

Abstract: Natural pozzolans and similar geomaterials derived from volcanic eruptions contain heavy metals in significant or trace amounts, viz Cr, Co, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn. Rain water, being essentially soft water as is the case in tropical Africa, can dissolve these metals and thus facilitate their transport into surface waters or through soil into ground water. Soil humic substances produced principally by biogeochemical decomposition of plant residues are rich in humic and fulvic acids which are known to complex heavy metals. Mobilisation of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) presented in a sample of black pozzolan from Djoungo, Cameroon, in the presence of humic acid extracted from river sediment was studied at 20.0±0.1°C, pH 6 and 8 in a Jar test (batch stirred reactor) for contact times of 5 min and 24 hr and variable humic acid concentration (0.5 to 75 mg/L). The heavy metals were analysed by plasma spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Results showed that generally, the presence of humic acid increases the release of these heavy metals by pozzolan and this depends on time and pH. At pH 6, humic acid mobilised more heavy metals than at pH 8. For some metals (Cr, Zn, Cu), the amount released in the presence of humic acid, increased and levelled off with increase in humic acid concentration. Whereas for others (Pb, Co), the amount increased continuously. This suggests that humic acid acts as a heavy metal sink in contact with pozzolan or volcanic scoria, immobilising them and preventing their transport to the water table.

Keywords: Heavy Metals; Pozzolan; Humic Acid; Water


Authors: Rajeev Kumar Kanth; Pasi Liljeberg; Lirong Zheng; Qiang Chen; Yasar Amin; Hannu Tenhunen

Abstract: In this work end-of-life (EOL) analysis of polymer and paper based radio frequency devices have been carried out. Polymer and paper based RFID antenna has been chosen as a radio frequency device. An attempt has been made to investigate and evaluate the environmental emissions at end-of-life-cycle stage and to explore type and quantity of emissions at their disposal. The Gabi’s balance calculation methodology has been employed to determine amount of environmental emissions at the end-of-life cycle stage. Each significant component of the antenna and their corresponding emissions has been investigated in this paper. We have also compared the corresponding emissions to air and fresh water in both the technologies i.e. incineration and land-filling at EOL stage.

Keywords: Paper and Polymer Substrate; End-of-Life (EOL); LCA Software; Sustainability; Printed RFID Antenna