Architectural Structure and Environmental Performance of Sustainable Lahijan Vernacular Settlements, N Iran

Ensieh Ghorbani Nia
Vernacular residential structures of Lahijan located in north of Iran “Shikili Houses” can be considered as living organism which are the inheritance of optimal use of materials, constructing methods and climatic considerations during centuries. In this study, architectural documents and climatologic properties of around 26 types of wooden houses remained from 20th century in this city are analyzed. Besides, a combination of existing environmental parameters which result in creation of special characteristics in order to make desirable requirements suitable for micro-climate considered is studied. The combination mentioned can be called “Sustainable Design” which means ‘utilizing suitable technology and designing principles with a wise and intelligible approach toward climate and environment’. This kind of design is based on the layout of the building (orientation in relation to the sun and the wind, aspect ratio), the spacing (site planning), the air movement, the openings (size – position, protection), and the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing). The aim of the study is to document and assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, all the afore-mentioned aspects in order to draw conclusions concerning the principles, which have characterized this architecture and can be integrated to the refurbishment of existing buildings or the design of new ones in traditional surroundings.
Vernacular architecture; North Iran; Bioclimatic design; Construction techniques; Building physics
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