Volume 3 Issue 1
Authors: Zhaohua Li; Yanqiang Li; Wei Huang; Lianhai Sang
Abstract: The Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) are an innovative variant of wetlands with substrates-rooted plants and free-floating aquatic plant systems, which consist of aquatic or terrestrial plants growing in a hydroponic manner with buoyant frames floating on the surface of water bodies. On the AFIs, plants are enforced to attain nutrition directly from the water column as they are not rooted in any substrate, which improves the uptake rates of nutrient into biomass. The plant products produced by AFIs can be easily harvested and subsequently used as animal even human food or be processed into biogas, biofertilizer and biomaterial, impelling the practical application of the technology due to the potential economic returns. More importantly, AFIs has the unique advantage of occupying no land area. The paper descripted the type, structure, function, and developing history of AFIs. By analyzing the social-economic benefits, suggestions were given to China for applying AFIs technology to improve the water environment and to cultivate crops thereby creating a “win-win” model for both environmental protection and agricultural development in rural places.
Keywords: Artificial Floating Islands (Afis); Eutrophication; Waste Water Reruse; Rural China
Authors: Ensieh Ghorbani Nia
Abstract: Vernacular residential structures of Lahijan located in north of Iran “Shikili Houses” can be considered as living organism which are the inheritance of optimal use of materials, constructing methods and climatic considerations during centuries. In this study, architectural documents and climatologic properties of around 26 types of wooden houses remained from 20th century in this city are analyzed. Besides, a combination of existing environmental parameters which result in creation of special characteristics in order to make desirable requirements suitable for micro-climate considered is studied. The combination mentioned can be called “Sustainable Design” which means ‘utilizing suitable technology and designing principles with a wise and intelligible approach toward climate and environment’. This kind of design is based on the layout of the building (orientation in relation to the sun and the wind, aspect ratio), the spacing (site planning), the air movement, the openings (size – position, protection), and the building envelope (walls: construction materials-thickness, roof construction detailing). The aim of the study is to document and assess, both qualitatively and quantitatively, all the afore-mentioned aspects in order to draw conclusions concerning the principles, which have characterized this architecture and can be integrated to the refurbishment of existing buildings or the design of new ones in traditional surroundings.
Keywords: Vernacular architecture; North Iran; Bioclimatic design; Construction techniques; Building physics
Authors: Pratibha D’Souza; R. K. Somashekar
Abstract: One of the biggest problems associated with the dumping of solid waste is managing leachate that is formed when water passes through the deposited waste. It contains products of decomposition of organic matter and soluble ions which present a potential pollution threat for the surrounding soil, surface and ground waters. The knowledge of the composition of leachate helps to ascertain the contamination potential it poses to the immediate ecosystem and also aids to design an effective treatment technology and appropriate liners to contain the leachate. In this paper, leachate pollution index has been used to quantify the contamination potential that the dumping sites pose to the environment. This study also demonstrates the influence of various stabilization stages of the dumping sites on the composition of the leachate season wise.
Keywords: Leachate; Contamination Potential; Leachate Pollution Index; Dumping Sites
Authors: Vincenzo Stingo; Carmela Peluso; Ippolita Veronica Valentino; Lucia Rocco
Abstract: Genotoxic agents, including drugs, compromise the integrity of genetic material and influence DNA expression, both directly and indirectly. Notwithstanding the fact that the large selection of pharmacological molecules has improved the health of individual humans and/or animals, they have also caused a notable damage to the environment due to their high reactivity. In the present study we evaluated genetic effects of nine pharmacological substances in 170 individuals of Danio rerio using RAPD-PCR analysis. The amplification products from the individuals exposed to the same concentrations of the environmental pollutants showed significant changes in their electrophoretic pattern with respect to the negative controls. The genotoxic activity of these drugs was also validated at the molecular level by means of mathematical and statistical approaches. The aim of this study was to confirm genotoxicity data previously obtained by the Comet test and Diffusion assay using the RAPD technique, comparing changes in RAPD profiles and evaluating the loss of genomic stability (GTS, %). These results show that all drugs have toxic effects on genomic template stability at the concentrations used.
Keywords: Pharmacological Agents; Genotoxicity; RAPD-PCR; GTS; Zebrafish
Authors: Liulin Li; Chew-Tin Lee; Edward Ching-Ruey Luo; Ken Nagasaka; Yanbin Hua
Abstract: Many countries are facing increasing pressure to treat municipal wastewater due to rapid growing population in the urban cities. This paper reports a novel design based on an integrated water plumbing system to treat and reuse the household wastewater. The design facilitates simple and efficient collection, treatment, and reuse of wastewater within a household. The detailed design and operation procedure are presented. Implementation of simple and efficient design within a household is a viable solution to the problems faced by increased pressure on domestic wastewater treatments; it also offers savings to the residents and promotes the concept of green building.
Keywords: Household Wastewater; Integrated Plumbing System; Recovery and Reuse of Wastewater; Multilayer Filter