Municipal Landfill Leachate Characterization and its Induction of Glycogen Vacuolation in the Liver of Clarias gariepinus

Gbenga A. Adewumi; Adeolu O. Aderemi; Adebayo A. Otitoloju
In an effort to characterize leachate and evaluate its toxicity, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in leachate obtained from an unlined municipal solid waste landfill. Clarias gariepinus were exposed to it and its LC50 and histopathological effects on the liver were determined. Heavy metals, Cd (8.8mg/l), Pb (10.2mg/l), Zn (9.0mg/l), and Fe (6.5mg/l) were observed in the leachate. A high population of Enterobacteriaceae (1.26 x 105 ± 37264 CFU/ml) was also detected. Behavioural responses in the form of erratic swimming and uncoordinated opercula movements as well as mortality were observed in the exposed fishes. The 96hr median lethal concentration LC50 of the test leachate was 2.353%. Histopathological lesions in form of glycogen vacuolation were observed in the liver of fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.19%, 0.39% and 0.78% of the test leachate. These observations are of prime health concern because there is no containment system for the leachate generated from the study site. The LC50 value obtained from the acute toxicity study indicates that the leachate is toxic and could be of assistance in the assessment of the hazardous effects of landfill leachate discharged into the environment. The observation of glycogen vacuolation emphasizes its usefulness as a histopathological biomarker of response to landfill leachate exposure. This is important for the monitoring of the environmental safety of landfills in a bid to protect wildlife, human health and the environment.
Leachate; Landfill; Histopathology; Acute Toxicity; Biomarkers; Glycogen Vacuolation; Clarias Gariepinus
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