Volume 2 Issue 4
Authors: Tarek Abdel-Aziz A. Mohammed
Abstract: Coral assessment and distribution have been studied at some sites representing the Egyptian Red Sea coast from north Hurghada with 5km to Shalateen illustrating the most important factors that affect the coral distribution and abundance at the selected sites. The percentage cover of the coral reef community was estimated at each locality by using the standard method (the line intercept transect). During the present investigation, 68 coral species were recorded at seven coastal sites along the Egyptian Red Sea; forty-nine species of them were hard corals and the other 19 species were soft corals. North Hurghada site (NIOF) recorded the least cover of the living coral (66.23%) while Abu-Dabab area recorded the maximum coverage percent (91.50%). In spite of the fact that NIOF site recorded the least cover, it measured the maximum species diversity (3.54) and the maximum recorded number of species (48 species), Shalateen recorded the least diversity (1.97) and the least number of species (24 species). Pocillopora damicornis recorded the highest coverage percent of the hard corals (15.6%) at El Sharm El-Bahari, and Sarcophyton glaucum recorded the highest soft corals (10.18%) at North Qula'an. Some environmental, biological interaction and anthropogenic activities were the main controlling factors of coral distribution at the studied areas such as overfishing, tourism developments, as well as petroleum and phosphate production, Sedimentation processes, bottom topography and geomorphology.
Keywords: Coral Assessment; Diversity; Community Distribution; Evenness Index; Red Sea; Egypt
Authors: H. Faghihian; N. Pourbasirat
Abstract: In this study, the removal of phenol from aqueous solution by β zeolite and surfactant-modified zeolite has been studied. Zeolite beta prepared by the hydrothermal method was modified by N-cetylpridinium bromide. The adsorbents were characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, and thermal method techniques. Under optimized conditions, the adsorption capacity ranges from 10 to 40 mg/g depending on the amount of the immobilized surfactant and the pH of the solution. Kinetic and thermodynamic issues of the reaction were studied and the corresponding parameters were calculated. At the studied temperatures, the ΔGo of the reaction was negative. Equilibrium data was fitted to the Langmuir model indicating that the phenol adsorption was monolayer and chemisorption in nature.
Keywords: Phenol; Adsorption Isotherms; Adsorption Kinetics; Adsorption Thermodynamics
Authors: Gbenga A. Adewumi; Adeolu O. Aderemi; Adebayo A. Otitoloju
Abstract: In an effort to characterize leachate and evaluate its toxicity, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed in leachate obtained from an unlined municipal solid waste landfill. Clarias gariepinus were exposed to it and its LC50 and histopathological effects on the liver were determined. Heavy metals, Cd (8.8mg/l), Pb (10.2mg/l), Zn (9.0mg/l), and Fe (6.5mg/l) were observed in the leachate. A high population of Enterobacteriaceae (1.26 x 105 ± 37264 CFU/ml) was also detected. Behavioural responses in the form of erratic swimming and uncoordinated opercula movements as well as mortality were observed in the exposed fishes. The 96hr median lethal concentration LC50 of the test leachate was 2.353%. Histopathological lesions in form of glycogen vacuolation were observed in the liver of fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.19%, 0.39% and 0.78% of the test leachate. These observations are of prime health concern because there is no containment system for the leachate generated from the study site. The LC50 value obtained from the acute toxicity study indicates that the leachate is toxic and could be of assistance in the assessment of the hazardous effects of landfill leachate discharged into the environment. The observation of glycogen vacuolation emphasizes its usefulness as a histopathological biomarker of response to landfill leachate exposure. This is important for the monitoring of the environmental safety of landfills in a bid to protect wildlife, human health and the environment.
Keywords: Leachate; Landfill; Histopathology; Acute Toxicity; Biomarkers; Glycogen Vacuolation; Clarias Gariepinus
Authors: Josmar Davilson Pagliuso; Edmilson de Souza
Abstract: Air pollution has become an important issue in world. In Brazil, the recent development economic process allowed to the other regions of the country pass a diversification in the business matrix. The present study addresses the air quality in an urban area of Midwest Brazil, which proposes to initially produce a body of information related to air quality that until now is new to a region that suffers an accelerated industrial process. Tres Lagoas (47'S 20th, 51st 42'W) in eastern Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), represents the second largest GDP industrial of the state, and grows at an annual rate greater than the growth of Brazil, similar to the Asian countries. To understand the relationship between industrialization and consequences to the environment were evaluated air pollutants emissions from anthropic sources, meteorological parameters, and formation of secondary pollutants. Emissions of carbon monoxide are about 2,500 ton/year, and the local fleet of vehicles is the main source with a 97.2%. The industrial sector contributes with 46.4% of oxides of nitrogen. Concerning to the pollutants gases monitored in atmosphere, the mean concentrations, in the analyzed period (2005 and 2006), was measured in ppbv: O3 = 25 ± 14. 4, NOx = 9.4 ± 6,6 e CO=166. 5 ± 49.8. The Ozone, during September/2005, showed strong linear correlation with temperature (0, 76) and moderate to solar radiation (0, 58). Indeed, the results proved that the air quality levels of Tres Lagoas city is in accordance with the current Country legislation.
Keywords: Air Quality; Atmospheric Pollution; Emission Inventory; Ozone; Urban Developing
Authors: Shunitz Tanaka; Takeshi Saito; Suhaemi M. Syawal; Yustiawati; Masaomi Yasuda; Md. Tajuddin Sikder; Masaaki Kurasaki
Abstract: A comparative study of general water quality has been extensively studied in some major rivers of West Java, Indonesia and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Water quality assessment based on physiochemical investigation along with heavy metal concentration in water and sediments is presented. The results indicate that maximum sampling sites in the rivers of Dhaka are severely impaired in comparison with the rivers of West Java. And, the pollution gap in the rivers of Dhaka is evident in respect of the season where pollution in winter is eminent in comparison with rainy seasons. All rivers were severely polluted with NOx, PO43- and Escherichia coli (E-coli). The heavy metal concentration of Al and Mn exceeded whereas, Cu, Zn and Pb were found to be below the international guidelines in most of the sampling points. And, Cd and Fe approached the threshold limit in Dhaka. With the enrichment study, every metal was found predominant in both the Ciliwung and the Cikaniki River; while rivers of Dhaka comprise little enrichment value adequately report noteworthy difference in metal sources along with elevated accumulation trends of metals into the bed sediments. The re-suspension experiment also suggests identical trends of metal swelling into the sediments. High health risks were envisaged due to the presence of toxic mercury in sediments (0.83-1.07 μg/g) of the Cikaniki River and paddy samples (0.08 μg/g ) close to the baseline value of Indonesia. Based on the results, it is evident that metal, organic and fecal pollution in the rivers of West Java and Dhaka are in somewhat dreadful condition that requires immediate remediation step.
Keywords: Pollution; Wate Quality; West Jav; Dhak; Mercury Contamination
Authors: Serena Melchiorre; Valentina Messineo; Milena Bruno; Pasquale Gallo
Abstract: Cyanobacterial toxins are considered a worldwide cause of human poisoning and an important health hazard for human beings. Their presence is generally a direct consequence of a poor human use of surface waters, with increase of nutrient levels due to sewage discharges or to agricultural run-off. At present research groups make efforts to plan effective risk management strategies, and to elaborate risk assessment evaluations taking into account all the possible routes of exposure for the resident human populations. This study shows the case of Lake Vico in Central Italy, hosting annual toxic blooms of Planktothrix rubescens with microcystin contamination in lake water, fish species, groundwater and agricultural products, together with arsenic presence in groundwater and lake water. Investigations during 2008-2009 detected microcystin contamination in five fish species (from 0.21 to 411.5 ng/g body weight), in lake water (from 0.42μg/L to 350μg/L) and in treated drinking water plans (from 0.17 to 0.50μg/L). The content of microcystins in some fish samples was confirmed also by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry. The calculated EDI according to WHO proposed guidelines went from 5.1 to 123.4 g microcystins, 2-51.4 times higher than the WHO TDI value. In 2010 analyses performed on Corylus avellana fruits from cultured trees growing near the lake shore detected microcystin contamination. This evidence, and the presence in the lake, in its groundwater and in local drinking water plans of As levels exceeding the WHO limits for water uses, lead to consider the need to evaluate all the possible environmental variables influencing the assessment of the health risk for
Keywords: Microcystins; Lake Vico; Accumulation; Fish; Water; Risk Assessment