Developing an Artificial Wetland System for Wastewater Treatment: A Designing Perspective

Gopal Pathak; Kirti Avishek; Moushumi Hazra
Out of the available water resources 97% of water is present in oceans, 2% polar ice caps and fresh water lakes constitute 1% of the water. India is likely to be water scarce by 2050. It is therefore important to increase the efficiency of water use, explore options to augment water supply in critical areas, and ensure more effective management of water resources. Among the Eight missions stated in the National Action Plan for Climatic Changes (NAPCC, INDIA), National Water Mission (NWM) lays stress on sustainable use and reuse of water and wastewaters. The aim of this research paper lays stress on using phytoremediation for wastewater treatment and designing a pilot wetland system. The aquatic plant species which are disease and drought resistant, heat, cold, salt, chemical, insect and stress tolerant should be identified. Other selection criteria are growth rate/biomass production and reproduction rate. Some common aquatic plant species used in wastewater treatment are Eichhornia cressipes, Azolla spp. Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara spp, Hygrophila polysperma, Ipomoea aquatica, Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia, Brassica juncea,, Helianthus annuus and Medicago sativa. They are basically responsible for removal of nutrients such as COD, heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, nitrate, phosphorus as well as hydrocarbons and suspended solids. The methodology adopted will help in the identification of pollutants in domestic and industrial wastewater which will undergo the process of phytoremediation. For this purpose wastewater sampling of domestic and industrial water such as hospital, steel, coal mining etc. will be collected depending upon the availability. The comparative analysis of species will be performed so that construction of a Pilot wetland system for treatment of wastewater can be designed. Constructed wetlands can mitigate ecological risks to aquatic receiving systems by decreasing concentrations and toxicity of contaminants. Water quality assessement before and after the treatment will indicate the removal efficiency of nutrients by the species as well as design approach of constructed wetland in treating wastewaters to meet the regulatory discharge limits. Based on the results the feasibility of the pilot study can be recommended for study at large scale. The scope of the work if completed successfully would help in attaining National Water Mission of India. Wastewater can be reused which are being generated by different human based activities (approximately 80% of water being used is returned as wastewater). It can also be implemented in town planning and residential complexes.
Phytoremediation; phytoremediator; domestic and industrial wastewater; wastewater treatment; contaminants of concern (COC); metallophytes, decentralized, removal efficiency, mesocosm, constructed wetland (CW); Removal Efficien
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