Volume 1 Issue 2
Authors: L.K. Bandyopadhyay; P.K. Mishra; R.S. Singh; N. Tripathi; K. Mandal; A. Kumar; S.K. Chaulya
Abstract: The paper describes analytical results of physico-chemical parameters and proximate analysis of coal dust collected from road surface of four opencast coal mines located in different coalfields of India. Value of pH, water holding capacity, ash percentage, moisture content, volatile matter, bulk density, specific gravity and fixed carbon was found to be in the range of 5.1–7.7, 21.17−31.71%, 45−76%, 0.5−3.0%, 12.6−20.0%, 1.15–1.70 g cm3, 1.73–2.30, and 10.2–45.3%, respectively. The study revealed that the coal dust abundantly available on road surface of opencast coal mines may be used as domestic fuel. Hence, collection and utilization of coal dust accumulated on mine road would not only reduce air pollution in mining regions but also help in enhancing economic benefit of coal mining industry by selling waste coal dust as domestic fuel.
Keywords: Opencast mine; haul and transport roads; coal dust; physico-chemical properties; domestic fuel
Authors: Brahim Idelhakkar
Abstract: Among commodity products in the world, oil is the mostly transported. Most of the oil flowing in the world is carried on specific ships, tankers. They can easily deliver large quantities of -either crude or refined -oil to places where they are needed, often following the same routes. The shipping of these products is done under conditions of strict security provided by the oil companies, ship-owners who have the ships and the states that register them. Oil tankers can have very different sizes. They are classified according to their transport capacity measured in tones of crude. Thus, in response to a constantly increasing demand, the oil freight (transportation of crude but also fuel, fuel or basic products for the petrochemical industry) continues to grow. Among commodity products in the world, oil is the mostly transported. Most of the oil flowing in the world is carried on specific ships, tankers. They can easily deliver large quantities of -either crude or refined -oil to places where they are needed, often following the same routes. The shipping of these products is done under conditions of strict security provided by the oil companies, ship-owners who have the ships and the states that register them. Energy consumption by shipping is the source of many pollutants. Environmental risks associated with exporting and shipping of oil in particular can be very important. The resulting effects are diverse and often complex. For some of them (impacts on the built environment, visibility, vegetation: wildlife, health) it is however possible to give some quantification in physical terms. The monetary value of these effects can refer to their economic cost or to a "contingent valuation", and it raises some methodological difficulties. Today the risk is financial, social, physical, environmental and human. The shipping company must manage after identifying risks and knowing how to transfer them to insurers, sovereign states, take offs to the maritime adventure, as the sea still remains a wild world. Worldwide, operators require the highest levels ever of environmental and social performance of industry.
Keywords: Oil pollution, tanker ;externality; market failure; risk; regulation; free negotiation ;insurance
Authors: Ramachandra T.V; Alakananda B; Supriya G.
Abstract: Microalgae are emerging as one of the most promising sources of biofuel because of their high photosynthetic efficiency and faster replication as compared to any other energy crops. Although, the concept of using microalgal lipid as a source of fuel is very mature, its approach in benefiting both environmental and energy-related is a frontier research area today. Algal community for the production of lipid depends on the physical, chemical as well as biological variables of aquatic ecosystems. This communication focuses on achieving the lipid characterization of the microalgal community collected from four wetlands and one agricultural field of Bangalore, Karnataka with a wide range of environmental characteristics. Results reveal significant change in lipid component with change in algal community and chlorophyll content which was explained by community structure analysis and chlorophyll estimation. The presence of Triacyl glycerol (TAG) was examined through thin layer chromatography (TLC). The profile of TAG was further confirmed through Gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). This study confirms the potential of algal community towards meeting growing demand for alternate sustainable fuel.
Keywords: Microalgae; Community structure; Lipid; Gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy
Authors: Gopal Pathak; Kirti Avishek; Moushumi Hazra
Abstract: Out of the available water resources 97% of water is present in oceans, 2% polar ice caps and fresh water lakes constitute 1% of the water. India is likely to be water scarce by 2050. It is therefore important to increase the efficiency of water use, explore options to augment water supply in critical areas, and ensure more effective management of water resources. Among the Eight missions stated in the National Action Plan for Climatic Changes (NAPCC, INDIA), National Water Mission (NWM) lays stress on sustainable use and reuse of water and wastewaters. The aim of this research paper lays stress on using phytoremediation for wastewater treatment and designing a pilot wetland system. The aquatic plant species which are disease and drought resistant, heat, cold, salt, chemical, insect and stress tolerant should be identified. Other selection criteria are growth rate/biomass production and reproduction rate. Some common aquatic plant species used in wastewater treatment are Eichhornia cressipes, Azolla spp. Ceratophyllum demersum, Chara spp, Hygrophila polysperma, Ipomoea aquatica, Pistia stratiotes, Typha latifolia, Brassica juncea,, Helianthus annuus and Medicago sativa. They are basically responsible for removal of nutrients such as COD, heavy metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, nitrate, phosphorus as well as hydrocarbons and suspended solids. The methodology adopted will help in the identification of pollutants in domestic and industrial wastewater which will undergo the process of phytoremediation. For this purpose wastewater sampling of domestic and industrial water such as hospital, steel, coal mining etc. will be collected depending upon the availability. The comparative analysis of species will be performed so that construction of a Pilot wetland system for treatment of wastewater can be designed. Constructed wetlands can mitigate ecological risks to aquatic receiving systems by decreasing concentrations and toxicity of contaminants. Water quality assessement before and after the treatment will indicate the removal efficiency of nutrients by the species as well as design approach of constructed wetland in treating wastewaters to meet the regulatory discharge limits. Based on the results the feasibility of the pilot study can be recommended for study at large scale. The scope of the work if completed successfully would help in attaining National Water Mission of India. Wastewater can be reused which are being generated by different human based activities (approximately 80% of water being used is returned as wastewater). It can also be implemented in town planning and residential complexes.
Keywords: Phytoremediation; phytoremediator; domestic and industrial wastewater; wastewater treatment; contaminants of concern (COC); metallophytes, decentralized, removal efficiency, mesocosm, constructed wetland (CW); Removal Efficien
Authors: O.E. Frihy; E.A. Deabes
Abstract: Beach-nearshore profiles, annually surveyed be-tween 1991 and 2010, combined with coastal processes are analyzed to assess changes in rate of shoreline position, seabed level, sediment volume and seabed grain sizes that developed after extensively protecting the central-bulge of the Nile delta coast with numerous engineering structures. This area including the Burullus-Baltim beach, 25 km long, is located on a very active littoral zone, which has expe-rienced widespread erosion of -5 m/yr, originally before construction of a series of engineering structures to stabilize the shoreline. These structures built in stages and include 17 detached breakwaters, 9 groins, 3 jetties, seawall and basalt riprap. The shift from beach erosion prior to the construc-tion of these engineering structures to accretionary tombo-los (18.9 m/yr shoreline advance; 36 cm/yr seabed accretion) and salient has successfully stabilized the coastline. Howev-er, erosion appeared downcoast of the detached breakwater system up to the Kitchener drain has resulted in the con-struction of additional groins. It is expected that sediment producing to the east along Gamasa embayment by the eastwardly unidirectional current will subsequently dimi-nish as a result of sand trapped by the constructed break-waters, built early in 1993. Unexpectedly, the active accre-tionary channel-mouth sandbars developed at the Kitchener drain mouth followed the construction of the nine groins have contributed to the problem of periodic sedimentation of this drain. In general, the study coastline exhibits a wide range of beach dynamics resulted from interactions of waves and shoreline orientation, hard structures and sedi-ment supply.
Keywords: coastal processes; beach erosion; protective structures; sediment transport; estuarine sedimentation; detached breakwaters; coastal dunes
Authors: Atonio D. Aretxabala; Cristina L. Sanz
Abstract: The earthquake of the 11th of May 2011 that struck the town of Lorca in the region of Murcia, in the Southeast (SE) of the Iberian Peninsula has been the one with the most destructive effects in the last sixty years in Spain. Its unpredictable and devastating effects: nine victims and direct losses of 1,650,000,000 €. The monumental architectural heritage of Lorca has been severely damaged, with an estimated cost of restoration above 50,000,000 €. As one of the heads of the local government Culture Department declared: “This seism has had the most negative impact on European Heritage since the one that partially collapsed the Basilica of Asissi, in Italy, in 1997”. The accelerations measured in the first event and in the second one, two hours later, were 0.24g (Mw 4.4) and 0.41g (Mw 5.1). The seismic resistant structural code in force, NCSR 02, determines a basic acceleration of 0.12g for the area. The seism was caused by the activity of the Alhama-Murcia Fault (FAM), known since 1979, on which epicentres were located, NE of the town centre. The amplifying effect of the ground under Lorca, exceeding the previsions of the ground coefficient C established in the NCSE 02, was one of the causes of the severe damage in the built environment. These events provide an unsurpassable opportunity to study and analyse, among other areas, the role that microzoning, urban planning and design can play in effectively mitigating hazard in the urban areas of the seismic-prone regions, where historical cities with significant heritage are sited. Planners provided with tectonic seismic local maps and detailed information of the sub-surface geology will make the right decisions in order to preserve not only lives but also the built existing environment and new buildings in future developments. Besides the evident revision of NCSE 02, other building standards should be revised to guarantee not only a correct design but also the maintenance and retrofitting of buildings not meeting the requirement of seismic resistant design and codes in force, highlighting the need to include among them heritage structures.
Keywords: Earthquakes, Faults, Heritage Damages, Seismic-Resistant Structural Codes, Urban Planning in Seismic Zones
Authors: LUO; Edward Ching-Ruey
Abstract: Apparent shear stress, which is presented in forms of roughness ratio, width ratio and depth ratio between main channel and flood plain, is quite important in the compound channel flows with the behaviors of momentum transfer on control works for both soil material and contaminate transports. The analytical solutions of apparent shear stress for symmetric-straight compound channel flows both in main channel and flood plain are derived and compared with the results of experimental and numerical outputs. The acceptable tendencies and agreements are presented. The significances of the ratios on roughness, width and depth are discussed for the characteristics of apparent shear stress.
Keywords: Compound Channel; Momentum transfer; Apparent Shear Stress; Soil transport; Contaminate transport