Environmental and Ecological Aspects of First Generation Genetically Modified Crops Regarding Their Impacts in a European Maize Producer Country

Székács, A; Darvas B.
The success of the first generation of genetically modified (GM) crops for plant protection purposes in the US has not been followed by similar progress in Europe, where cultivation represents only 3‰ of the overall worldwide GM cultivation area. As for insect resistant GM plants, protection against numerous important maize pests is yet unresolved e.g., against soil-borne pests. Yield advantages of the MON 810 and SYN-Bt11 maize varieties tested in Hungary, who is the second biggest European maize producer, was lowered by 5%. Resistance against pests to Cry toxins rapidly emerges in the US. As for glyphosate tolerant GM crops certain dangerous weeds resistant to glyphosate are being selected in field applications. First-generation GM crops do not offer a solution to the fundamental ecological conflicts of industrial agriculture, mostly rooted in monoculture-based cultivation.
Genetically Modified Crops; Glyphosate Tolerant; Lepidopteran Resistant; Coleopteran Resistant; Bacillus Thuringiensis; Cry Toxins; Pest Resistance
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