Volume 2 Issue 5
Authors: Tarek Aa Mohammed; Hamed Aa; Habib Nf; Ezz El-Arab Ma; El-Moselhy Khm
Abstract: Many researches studied the corals rehabilitation using different techniques all over the world and recorded accepted results. The present experiment presents a new technique and methodology (according to the International Patent) for coral reef transplantation and rehabilitation using Electric Arc Furnace-slag as a substrate for the transplanted corals. Slag is composed mainly of iron oxides (38.07-54.73%), calcium oxides (24.49-34.58%) and silicon oxides (10.23-14.71%) as major constituents, which are chemically stable under the oceanographic conditions throughout the experiment time. In addition, a thin calcium carbonate layer was precipitated on the slag surface from the water column. Three sites were selected to evaluate the steel slag efficiency for coral transplantation. 550 branches and fragments of live corals- Acropora, Stylophora, Favia, Favites, Goniastera and Turbinaria were fixed on the slag by epoxy materials to transplant. After 22 months, about 70.18% of the transplanted corals survived. That the percentage was suddenly dropped and decreased to 49.27% after 24 months may be due to the effect of flood, high turbidity, and the raised water temperature. Finally, the study recommended by using steel slag as a suitable substrate for coral transplantation and larval settlements of the different coral types.
Keywords: Coral Reefs; Restoration Technique; EAF Slag; Red Sea
Authors: Meiying Xu; Jun Guo; Wei Sun; Shaobin Huang; Guoping Sun; Zhenghui Liu
Abstract: Dongjiang River is the major source of drinking water supply for the Pearl River Delta in South China. In order to assess the spatio-temporal changes of water quality in the watershed, the water quality index (WQI) was applied to calculate scores based on water characteristics data from 2008 to 2010, and then water qualities were classified as excellent, good, medium, bad and very bad. The results indicated good water quality in the upper parts of the watershed. Medium water quality was shown in the middle and lower parts, mainly due to increasing population, frequent anthropogenic activities, sewage discharges and non-point pollution from agriculture in the Dongjiang basin. The applicability of WQI was satisfactory for evaluating the global variations of water quality on spatial and temporal scale in the river.
Keywords: Water Quality Index; Drinking Water Source; Spatio-temporal Change; Dissolved Oxygen
Authors: A. K. Gorai
Abstract: Air pollution monitoring program aims to monitor pollutants concentrations and its possible adverse effects at various locations over concerned area on the basis of air quality. Traditional air quality assessment is realized using air quality indices which are determined as mean values of selected air pollutants. Thus, air quality assessment depends on strictly prescribed limits without taking into account specific local conditions (like time of exposure and sensitivity of the people) and synergic relations between air pollutants. The stated limitations can be eliminated using fuzzy logic systems. Therefore, the paper presents a design of a model for air quality assessment based on fuzzy pattern recognition. This paper discusses the use of fuzzy pattern recognition technique in air quality risk assessment for a number of artificial dataset prepared for the present study. To demonstrate the application, common air pollutants like PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO, and O3 are used as air pollutant parameters. Different air pollutants have varying in health impact and hence in air quality, the weightage of each pollutant are different. Thus, the weightage of air pollutant parameter are determined using analytical hierarchical process (AHP).
Keywords: Air Quality Assessment; Fuzzy Pattern Recognition; Optimisation
Authors: Székács, A; Darvas B.
Abstract: The success of the first generation of genetically modified (GM) crops for plant protection purposes in the US has not been followed by similar progress in Europe, where cultivation represents only 3‰ of the overall worldwide GM cultivation area. As for insect resistant GM plants, protection against numerous important maize pests is yet unresolved e.g., against soil-borne pests. Yield advantages of the MON 810 and SYN-Bt11 maize varieties tested in Hungary, who is the second biggest European maize producer, was lowered by 5%. Resistance against pests to Cry toxins rapidly emerges in the US. As for glyphosate tolerant GM crops certain dangerous weeds resistant to glyphosate are being selected in field applications. First-generation GM crops do not offer a solution to the fundamental ecological conflicts of industrial agriculture, mostly rooted in monoculture-based cultivation.
Keywords: Genetically Modified Crops; Glyphosate Tolerant; Lepidopteran Resistant; Coleopteran Resistant; Bacillus Thuringiensis; Cry Toxins; Pest Resistance
Authors: Hilmi Yüksel
Abstract: Because of the increasing population of cities and the affects of industrialization, solid waste management becomes an important problem for cities. This problem gets bigger in large cities related with large population and increased complexity. Collection of solid waste is the first and a critical phase of solid waste management programs. This paper aims to evaluate the success of solid waste collection programs of large cities in Turkey with data envelopment analysis. By using data envelopment analysis, municipalities can benchmark the efficiency of their waste collection programs and can evaluate what they should do for increasing the efficiency of their waste collection programs.
Keywords: Waste Collection; Waste Management; Data Envelopment Analysis
Authors: D.G. Marbaniang
Abstract: Spectrophotometric determination of Mn in ground water samples was performed employing the Bismuthate oxidation method and using the Systronic Model 166 and Visible Spectrophotometer. Thirty-six ground water samples were collected from different parts of the city of Shillong, Meghalaya, India and the depth of the sample sources ranges from 10 feet to 350 feet. The bismuthate oxidation method was first validated to check its efficiency and reproducibility. The minimum detection limit for Mn using this method was observed to be 0.1mg/L. The λmax was also determined and it was found out to be 510nm. The efficiency of the method was about 98-99%. The interference due to the presence of iron was also monitored and it was observed that iron concentration up to 5mg Fe /L did not interfere with the estimation. In this study, the concentration of Mn in the ground water sample was found to be ranged between Below Detection Limit (BDL) to 0.65mg/L. Detectable Mn concentration was observed in all the sampling sites except one location.
Keywords: Bismuthate; Estimation; Ground; Manganese; Oxidation; Water