Volume 2 Issue 3

Authors: Marimuthu Citartan; Soo-Choon Tan; Thean-Hock Tang

Abstract: In vitro analysis of RNA-protein interaction requires good quality RNA. Most of the current methods of RNA purification are tedious, time consuming and involves incomplete separation of degraded and full-length RNA. Moreover, these methods are also associated with hazardous materials such as ethidium bromide and phenol: chloroform. In addition, impurities co-purified with RNA samples can be potential contaminants that can compromise output signal such as signal measurement in Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR). Previously, we have reported on the fast and cost-effective method of small RNA purification from polyacrylamide gel (PAGE) as an alternative in alleviating problems often experienced with the current methods of purification. Optimal temperature-dependant elution of the small RNA was within the range of 50-60 °C. Our method of small RNA purification can be employed towards preparing RNA for RNA-protein interaction assays, since most of these analyses involve RNA with the size of 20-140 nucleotides long as the ligand. In this review, we attempt to overview the potential applicability of our small RNA purification method in several assays of RNA-protein interaction.

Keywords: RNA Purification; RNA-Protein Interaction


Authors: Modesto Sosa-Aquino; José Francisco Gómez-Aguilar; Angelica Hernandez-Rayas; Martha Alicia Hernandez-Gonzalez; Teodoro Cordova-Fraga; Miguel Vargas-Luna; Sergio Solorio-Meza; Carlos Ricardo Contreras-Gaytan; Jesus Bernal-Alvarado; José María de la Roca-Chiapas

Abstract: The use of ultrasound equipment in routine clinical evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is still standby. Objective: to show an alternative application of ultrasound technique for monitoring peristalsis and gastric emptying through an executable routine implemented in LabVIEW. Methods: an ultrasound equipment (Medison SONACE 800 SE) was used in ten healthy subjects and four patients; dominant peristalsis frequency and gastric emptying were measured after fasting nights of the patients; subjects ingested, first 300 mL of water and then a solid meal (240 kCal). Results: the video acquisition in M mode and imaging processing were performed in a LabVIEW platform, as long as digital signal processing was carried out in matlab 2008a; peristaltic frequency of 2.4 cpm (cycles per minute) and a half time of the gastric emptying around 35 s were found. Discussion: these findings are congruent with similar evaluations of GI tract obtained by using the gold standard technique. So, ultrasound technique is now an alternative procedure for gastric evaluation with the advantage that patients are free of ionizing radiation, and these equipments are amply available in the world hospitals.

Keywords: Digital Images Processing; Digital Signal Analysis; Gastroparesis


Authors: Tadahiro Sunagawa; Kenji Watanabe; Yusuke Ozawa; Shohei Nakashima; Tomomasa Kanda; Motoyuki Tagashira; Manabu Sami; Takao Kaneko; Shoichi Tahara; Takuji Shirasawa; Takahiko Shimizu; Haruaki Nakaya

Abstract: Apple polyphenols (AP), which contain procyanidins as major components, have been reported to display potent antioxidant activity and several beneficial health effects. To investigate the protective effect of AP intake against murine cardiomyopathy caused by endogenous oxidative stress, we orally administered AP to heart/muscle-specific manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)-deficient (H/M-Sod2-/-) mice [Nojiri et al., 2006]. Dietary AP significantly increased the survival of the mutant mice, extending their mean lifespan by 29%. Dietary AP also suppressed the progression of cardiac dilatation and fibrosis in the H/M-Sod2-/- mice. In vitro experiments revealed that AP treatment strongly suppressed the production of hydrogen peroxide induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in C2C12 myoblast cells and endogenous superoxide production in Mn-SOD-deficient cells. Furthermore, dietary AP suppressed ROS production in Mn-SOD-deficient cardiomyocytes and oxidative DNA damage in vivo. These results indicate that dietary AP improved the survival and pathology of short-lived mice with cardiomyopathy by suppressing mitochondrial superoxide production.

Keywords: Apple Polyphenol; Procyanidin; Oxidative Stress; Manganese-Superoxide Dismutase; Antioxidant


Authors: Husham Farouk Ismail; Elamir Abu Abaida Ali Osman; Ahmad Khaleel AL-Omari; Olig Grigorovitsh Avrunin

Abstract: A simplified model of the nasal cavity contains the paranasal sinuses was constructed. The level of ventilation and pneumatization of the paranasal sinuses was also integrated into the model. It was demonstrated that during the normal operation of the nasal cavity, turbulent airflow predominates. When the nasal cavities are blocked due to pathology, the airflow is laminar.

Keywords: Nasal Cavity; Respiratory Cavity; Anastomosis; Ventilation; Turbulent; Laminar Regime