Volume 2 Issue 12
Authors: Kunio Yoshikawa; Seong Cheon Kim; Young Nam Chun
Abstract: The pyrolysis and gasification is energy conversion technology for biomass to produce synthetic gases for industrial use. The tar in the thermal decomposition gas from the pyrolysis or gasification process, however, damages synthetic gas facilities and causes operation trouble. A gliding arc plasma reformer for tar decomposition was developed to address the aforementioned problem. The performance in decomposition mechanism and characteristic was conducted for a pyrene as a surrogate of biomass tar. Parametric experiments were conducted for steam feed rate, input power, total gas amount, and input tar concentration. Through experimental results, decomposition efficiency, energy efficiency, reforming gas and carbon black concentration have been established. At optimal conditions, decomposition efficiency was 88.3%, while energy efficiency of 0.13 g/kWh was obtained. The higher heating value of the producer gas was 11,308 kJ/Nm3 (excluding N2) with carbon balance of 93.8%.
Keywords: Gliding arc plasma; Tar; Pyrene; Decomposition efficiency; Pyrolysis; Biomass
Authors: Svetlana To?evska; Dragan Vasileski; Traj?e Stafilov; Katerina Ba?eva; Kole Pavlov
Abstract: The Tikveš Basin, which covers the central and the south parts of the Republic of Macedonia, boasts a favourable geographic location and is of distinctive strategic and economic importance for the country. The region, however, has modest hydrological resources and faces a series of accumulated water management problems that hugely affect water supply, erosive processes and quality of surface water, the monitoring network of which is insufficient. In this respect, this work aimed at a more systematic and comprehensive assessment of water quality in some rivers, tributaries of the river Vardar in Tikveš Basin, primarily based on heavy metals as the chemical parameters during 2010. Besides determining the distribution of heavy metals in the rivers, the secondary priority is given to identifying the natural and the anthropogenic sources of pollution. The assessment of water quality at small tributaries of the river Vardar in the Tikveš Basin in 2010, based on their pollution with heavy metals, can lead to a general conclusion that the Luda Mara River has the lowest summary quality at the measurement point downstream the urban settlement of Kavadarci. Exceeded concentrations of Mn, Cu and Cd were recorded in the water and of Cu and Ni in the sediment. The Blašnica River had high concentrations of arsenic in water whose origin is related to mining activities of the abandoned As-Sb-Tl mine of Allchar. Exceeded concentrations of Pb and Cu were also recorded in water as were concentrations of nickel and chromium in the sediment. The high values for Ni and Cr originate from mine activities of the Ržanovo mine (ferro-nickel ores), located in the very proximity of the river flow.
Keywords: Rivers; Pollution; Heavy Metals; Water Quality; Tikveš Basin; Republic Of Macedonia
Authors: Hoang Quoc Hung; Phan Thu Nga; Tran Thi My Dieu
Abstract: Concept of eco-industrial park (EIP) has been introduced to several countries in the world as a result of several researches and projects on EIP have been implemented. Unfortunately, so far it seems no methods to evaluate whether existing industrial zones (IZs) achieving characteristics of EIP model are available. Very few even no authors mentioned about this. Therefore the paper concentrates on analyzing and composing a criteria and indicator system to evaluate and grade level of achievement of eco-industrial park model applied for existing industrial zone in Ho Chi Minh City and Vietnam. The result of this study provides a useful tool for both scientists and manager to evaluate and develop proper action plan for existing IZs moving towards EIP.
Keywords: Eco-Industrial Park; Industrial Zone; Criteria; Indicator; Sustainable Development
Authors: S.D. Pawar
Abstract: Air ions are continuously generated and destroyed by various processes in the atmosphere. Near the surface, nature of ions is very complex and they show large variations. Several factors such as the vertical stability of the lower atmosphere, turbulent wind speed, pollution, radioactivity of plant transpiration and ground influence affect their distribution in the atmosphere. Therefore to see the effect of pollution at rural atmosphere, seasonal variation of air ions was carried out. Air ions in the atmospheric air have been investigated using Gerdien type air ion counter. This air ion counter is indigenously designed and developed at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pune and operated at rural site Ramanandnagar. The pre monsoon period is heavily polluted and dusty period, which results in more negative ions attached to these aerosol particles. Therefore average negative ions decrease from winter to Pre-monsoon season. Pollution index is equal to one or smaller than one in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Therefore monsoon and post-monsoon seasons are beneficial to human health. In pre-monsoon pollution index is very high, which is harmful to human health.
Keywords: Cluster Ions; Plant Transpiration; Aerosol; Pollution Index; Radioactivity
Authors: Regan Leonardus Kaswanto; Hadi Susilo Arifin; Nobukazu Nakagoshi
Abstract: Research on water quality in rural landscapes in four watersheds was conducted in the dry season period. Twenty four villages in the west part of Java Island, Indonesia, were selected as the study sites. Water samples from springs, ponds, paddy fields and rivers in each village were analyzed. The water quality index (WQI) results showed that the water samples were in “good” and “medium” level. This condition proofed that rural landscapes have the ability to absorb and clean the water pollution through the natural process. Further analysis shows the negative correlation between WQI and TIN (sum of NH4-N, NO3-N and NO2-N), which indicated the deterioration in water quality due to the addictive effect of inorganic nitrogen compounds. Furthermore, the negative correlation between WQI and dissolved oxygen (DO) indicates the water quality is still in low level which complies with the standard. In conclusion, as a useful method for water quality classification, the WQI is effectively applicable for the assessment of water quality in the rural landscapes. In addition, the results were easy to understand for the non-scientific public and decision-makers. The WQI is suitable for the water quality assessments for monitoring pollution control strategies, particularly in developing countries with limited budgets.
Keywords: Agricultural Land; Rural Landscapes; Watershed Management; Water Quality Index; West Java Watersheds