Volume 2 Issue 4

Authors: Anjur Tupil Kanan; Narinder Kr Aggarwal; Anuradha Bansal; Ajay Kr Bansal

Abstract: The longitudinal data can always be represented in the form of polynomic trend on a graph which depicts the increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear behaviour of the data. Results on these trends without providing statistical analysis may be due to chance. In this exercise, the geographical trends of suicide rate from 1995 to 2009 are obtained for each State of India and are subjected to Average linkage between the groups method of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis using Bansal’s method of dissimilarity coefficient for longitudinal dataset (Bansal & Sharma 2003, Bansal & Sharma 2009), which indicates that these geographical trends tend to cluster and suggest 13 clusters for major States and Union Territories of India. Limitation of the method is that the trends which are more towards linearity in nature form distinct clusters rather than non linear trends. In this regard, some modifications in the method are required, which remains a question of further research. These clusters based on states will definitely help in the implementation of policies specific to administrative areas to alleviate this burden on the society.

Keywords: Geographical Time Trend; Cluster of Time Trends; Trends of Suicide Rate; Longitudinal DataTrends


Authors: Somchai Amornyotin; Ungkab Prakanrattana; Wiyada Chalayonnawin; Siriporn Kongphlay

Abstract: This study was to assess the effectiveness of brief advice offered by anesthetic personnel in quitting self-reported smoking in smoker patients who underwent GIE procedures in a developing country. After completing a baseline questionnaire assessing sociopsycho-demographics, tobacco dependence and quitting motivation, 114 smoker patients were randomized into two groups. Patients in Group A were encouraged smoking cessation, and the patients in Group B were not. After six-months of post advice, 12 patients (20.7%) in Group A and four patients (7.1%) in Group B quitted smoking. The number of cigarettes smoked, Fagerström score for nicotine dependence, and the patients having a partner who smoked in the continued smoking group was significantly higher than in the quitted smoking group. In conclusion, the brief advice by anesthetic personnel is a relatively effective and easy technique for smoking cessation in ambulatory GIE patients in a tertiary-care hospital in a developing country.

Keywords: Smoking Cessation; Brief Advice; Anesthetic Personnel; Developing Country


Authors: E.V. Mikheeva; E.A. Baytimirova; V.P. Mamina

Abstract: At present, the natural non-endemic geochemical anomalies impacts on biota are not studied enough. The purpose of this work was to study effects of the natural geochemical anomaly with high content of nickel, cobalt and chrome on animals. The anomalous environment accounts for low abundance of small mammals, changes in the interior weight characteristics, alterations in the adrenal cortex structure, and reproductive function modifications. Natural anomalies serve as a factor of the additional functional load upon reproductive and endocrine systems.

Keywords: Natural Geochemical Anomaly; Adaptation; Bank Vole; Adrenal Gland; Reproductive Function


Authors: Vipin Soni; Madhuri Modak; Manisha Nema

Abstract: The present paper aimed to study the phytodiversity of family Bignoniaceae in Bhopal of Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of 11 species belonging to 10 genera were recorded from Bhopal, out of these 7 species belonging to 6 genera are newly reported. Present study dealt with the artificial key to identify various genera, their taxonomic account and analysis of species under different headings like, dominante, rare and new reported species. The species like Cydista aequinoctialis were found to be the dominant species. The presence of the following species like Dolichandrone falcata, Heterophragma adenophyllum, and Oroxylum indicum indicates the presence of wilderness within the study area.

Keywords: Phytodiversity; Bignoniaceae; Bhopal; Madhya Pradesh


Authors: Manorenjitha Malar Sivanathan; Zairi J

Abstract: Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of nutrition and overcrowding on larval growth and fecundity of the female Aedes albopictus. In the first study, different larval densities (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 larvae) were tested with optimal and sub-optimal amounts of larval food under laboratory conditions. In the second study, the effect of nutrition and overcrowding at larval stage on the fecundity of female Ae. albopictus mosquitoes was observed. Results showed that larval growth of sub-optimally fed larvae, especially those from higher density, was significantly affected. Furthermore, the fecundity of female Ae. albopictus was found to be greatly affected by nutrition and overcrowding. Overall, nutrition and overcrowding resulted in increase of larval development time, increase in larval mortality and reduced fecundity of female mosquitoes.

Keywords: Aedes Albopictus; Nutrition; Cvercrowding


Authors: Motoki Sakai; Yuichi Okuyama; Toshihiro Sato; Daming Wei

Abstract: In some diagnoses, such as the polysomnography, simultaneous measurement of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the electrocardiogram (ECG) is often required. It would be more efficient if both the EEG and ECG could be obtained simultaneously by using a single measurement. In this paper, we introduce a nonlinear state-space projection-based technique to extract the EEG and ECG components from an EEG signal measured with a non-cephalic reference (NCR) that guarantees accurate detection of R waves in the EEG measurement. Evaluation of the method using simulated data showed that the improved normalized power spectrum in alpha, beta (13–30 Hz), and theta bands were accurate. In an accrual EEG, measured using the NCR electrode, it was confirmed that the frequency components of the extracted EEG were accurate, and no spikes that could be attributed to the ECG component were observed in the resultant EEG signal.

Keywords: Polysomnography; EEG; ECG; Non-Cephalic Reference; Nonliner State-Space Projection


Authors: Shigeyuki Nakaji; Kazuo Saito; Takashi Umeda; Hidefumi Kamitani; Yuichi Hirakawa; Kaori Iwane; Koshi Sumigawa; Shuhei Koeda; Ippei Takahashi; Masashi Matsuzaka

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to clarify the obesity-related problem in university sumo wrestlers by analyzing their blood biochemical values. Subjects were 18 university male sumo wrestlers. Their ages ranged from 18 to 24 years with average of 20.3±1.5 years. The measurements were derived from anthropometric parameters and blood biochemistries suchas glucose, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, AST, ALT, γGTP and uric acid in serum. Subjects were divided into two groups (light bodyweight group and heavy bodyweight group) according to their bodyweight by median. The prevalence of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and hyperuricaciduria in university sumo wrestlers were high compared with general population. This tendency was observed in both groups, though it was more notable in the heavy bodyweight group than in the light bodyweight group. It suggests that their nutritional intakes were excessive and inadequate in terms of their health management, leading to the increased risk of lifestyle diseases in the future. Our results suggested that it was important for sumo wrestlers to manage the amount of daily training and nutritional intake appropriately, and to increase bodyweight not by building up the body fat, but by trying to increase the muscular tissue.

Keywords: Sumo Wrestler;Obesity;Obesity-Related Conditions;Fatty Liver;Lifestyle Diseases


Authors: Takako Kobayashi; Wataru Miyazaki; Kazukiyo Yamamoto; Yuji Miura; Takeo Kondo

Abstract: In the event of an outbreak of a high risk pathogen, such as hemorrhagic fever or smallpox, it is essential to start treating the patients and controlling infection immediately. It is a real possibility that these most dangerous pathogens be brought into Japan via well developed transportation system or terrorist attacks using biological agents, and they can be dealt with only by special BSL-4 (Bio-Safety Level 4) laboratories that satisfy BSL-4 specified by the WHO [1]. As there are no BSL-4 laboratories in operation in Japan as of 2012, it is an immediate requirement to develop a suitable environment for the operation of laboratories of this kind, in order to maintain effective health risk management for the Japanese people. In this research, we will discuss the necessary conditions for BSL-4 laboratories’ operation in Japan.

Keywords: BSL-4; Location; Management; Biosafety; Biorisk; National Security


Authors: Brou Andre Konan; Kouakou Léandre Kouakou; Nahounou Mathieu Bléyéré; Kouao Augustin Amonkan; Viviane Jocelyne Zannou-Tchoko; Marie-Louise Berthe Ahui; Yao Jacques Datté; Kouamé Guy Marcel Bouafou

Abstract: Sesamum radiatum is employed in traditional medicine for parturient women to facilitate deliveries. In this study, the effects of the aqueous leaf extract were examined on the contractile activity of uterine smooth muscle isolated from pregnant Wistar rats (19-21 days). The isometric contractile force of the uterine smooth muscle bundles was recorded by using a strain gauge. S. radiatum aqueous leaf extracts (ESera, 1×10-4 μg/ml - 100μg/ml) showed uterotonic properties. These uterotonic effects were characterized by the increase of the amplitude, the frequency and the basal tone of the uterine smooth muscle strips in normal Mac Ewen solution and by the development of contracture in depolarizing solution and in solution without calcium. Similar effects were observed with Oxytocin (OT, 2.5×10-14μg/ml - 2.5×10-9 μg/ml) and misoprostol (Miso, 1×10-3 μg/ml – 0.08μg/ml). In Ca2+-free solution, the addition of the ESera (10 μg / ml) elicited the development of contracture in the presence of EGTA (0.1 mM). This result suggests that ESera could act on the double calcium flux (intracellular and extracellular) like misoprostol, a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1. In conclusion, the aqueous leaf extract of S. radiatum (ESera) had uterotonic effects (prostaglandin-like activity) on uterine contraction in pregnant rats.

Keywords: Sesamum Radiatum; Oxytocin; Misoprostol; Uterus; Contractile Activity