Volume 3 Issue 2
Authors: Magdy M. Zaki; Inderjit Nirdosh; Gomaa H. Sedahmed
Abstract: Indirect reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium by ferrous sulphate in the redox flow galvanic cell: Fe3+, Fe2+│Cr6+, Cr3+ with mesh electrodes was studied by measuring the polarization behaviour of the cell under different solution flow rates and different reactant concentrations. It was found that the rate of Cr6+ reduction as indicated by the cell current increases with increasing solution flow rate and reactant concentration. Within the present range of conditions, indirect Cr6+ reduction by FeSO4 was found to be under mixed mass and charge transfer control. The advantages of the present technique over direct hexavalent chromium reduction by iron scrap were highlighted. Possible practical applications of the technique in treating industrial effluents containing Cr+6 were noted.
Keywords: Water Pollution; Hexavalent Chromium Removal; Redox Flow Galvanic Cell
Authors: Masamoto Tafu; Ryuta Matsumoto; Hiroaki Onoda
Abstract: Corbicula shells, their main composition is calcium carbonate, were tried to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The concentration of phosphorus became lower by the adsorption with corbicula shells. Calcium phosphate was formed as a by-product. The obtained by-products were tried to use as an adsorbent for trimethylamine gas, fluoride anion, iodine, methylene blue in water. The concentrations of fluoride anion and iodine became lower with the by-products. The products from waste water and sea shells waste worked to improve water environment.
Keywords: Removal of Phosphorus; Corbicula Shells; Waste Water; Calcium Phosphates; By-Products
Authors: Mohammed Jamal Uddin; Md. Saifur Rahman; Syed Mohammod Hossain
Abstract: Soil is a mixture of minerals, plant and animal materials formed during a long process that may take thousands of years. The trace elements in soil are very important in aspects of both soil and environmental quality as well as the geological purposes. The soil and sediments have been extracted in the undisturbed state from Singair Upazila, Manikgonj district, Bangladesh; each of them extending from 1.5 feet (0.46m) up to about 27 feet (8.23m) of depth. The drilling cores were executed by wash borings method which were mainly composed of silty clay, very fine silty sand, fine to very fine sand, fine to medium sand and fine sand with mica layers at different depths. Nuclear reactor based Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method has been used for analysis of concentrations of various trace elements in subsurface soil and sediments at various depths. Although the mean, median and standard deviation of trace elements concentration from the two study sites soil samples demonstrate same distribution characteristics of soil, but the analytical results of selected borehole sediment samples of contaminated areas shows that the vertical distributions of arsenic and iron do not follow any regular or particular pattern. They are randomly distributed over all layers and the correlations coefficients [R2 =0.6568 (n=16), R2=0.4668 (n=18)] between total arsenic and iron in the core sediments are significant. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation was observed between Fe-Mn, Cr-Fe, Cr-Sc and Sc-Fe which indicates that they are closely associated with each other and variation in concentrations of one can influence the concentration of others.
Keywords: Investigation; Trace Elements; Neutron Activation Analysis; Correlation Analysis
Authors: Rahi suddin; Sandip Prasad; Syed Mohammad Rashid; Haroon Sajjad
Abstract: The present study assesses the groundwater of selected industrial areas of Meerut, northern India. Thirty hand pump and municipal water samples in 2011 and thirty tube well water samples in 2012 from the different locations of the study area were collected and analyzed according to standard methods. To assess the water quality, water quality index was calculated. The study reveals that most of the sampled areas of the Meerut city are highly contaminated due to excessive concentration of one or more of the water quality parameters such as nitrate, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, total dissolved solids and fluoride and indicated that nearly 53.3 % of the water samples in 2011 and 50% of the water samples in 2012 were non-potable. However, the water quality of tube well water samples is better than the hand pump water samples as 60% tube well water samples had WQI lower than hand pump water samples.
Keywords: Physico-Chemical Characteristics; Industrialization; Water Quality; Water Quality Index; Meerut
Authors: Bela Zutshi; D.R.Prasanna Kumar
Abstract: Blackbucks are endemic to the Indian Grasslands of Deccan Plateau. It is the only representative of genus antelope found in India and one of the most graceful and the fastest of all surviving species (70 km/hr). They were used to be seen in thousands at the beginning of this century all throughout the plains of India except the Western coast. In 1982, the estimated population in India was ranging from 22,500 to 24,500 . According to India Environment Portal report at the time of Independence, the blackbuck population was estimated at about 80,000. Due to immense pressures of large scale poaching and destruction of their habitat including cultivation, cattle grazing, human habitation etc., today they survive only in a few isolated pockets, with their reduced population [3, 11]. One among these isolated patches of grasslands with Blackbuck is Maydanahalli area of Tumkur district. The major problems here are typical man-animal conflict and shrinkage of habitat both in quality and quantity. Inspite of measures taken by forest department many of the problems are still not addressed. These issues need to be addressed in a holistic manner by establishing the synergy between different stakeholders. Though few focus studies have been taken up but not much work has been done regarding the issues related to conservation and management of the reserve. This paper highlights the periodic census conducted in the project area, as a strategy to understand the populaton dynamics of blackbucks which in turn helps to evolve long term plannings to mitigating some of the problems and helps in evolving newer strategies to sustain the conservation efforts.
Keywords: Habitat Conservation, Blackbuck census, Mydanahalli, Biodiversity