Volume 3 Issue 4
Authors: M. Ali Saloda; Narendra S. Rathore
Abstract: There are numbers of unit operations in agricultural industries and production industries consuming a measurable amount of conventional energy sources. Regarding implementation of energy conservation in the agricultural and production industry, it is observed that though some measures based on conventional fuel conservation strategy are implemented in large-scale factories, other based on renewable energy sources can be implemented in small and medium scale production factories. There are numbers of renewable energy sources which can easily be integrated in the production or manufacturing industries for conventional energy conservation such as solar energy for cooling, heating, steaming, drying and electricity generation etc., bio-energy for process heat for different unit operation and biomass improved cook stoves & furnace for thermal energy etc. Further, methods for reducing the methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manufacturing operations and developing wastewater treatment technologies that capture methane from wastes and use the methane as an energy source are also additional field for energy conservation in agricultural industries. The scarcity and reduction of the stored conventional energy sources motivated the author to work on the conservation of energy in agriculture industries. This paper deals with the conventional energy conservation measures by the application of Renewable Energy in agricultural and production industries involved in producing value added products. The essential points required for meeting energy conservation based on Renewable Energy Sources are also included in this paper.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Production; Agricultural; Energy conservation
Authors: Md. Mokhlesur Rahman; Md. Wahid-Uz-Zaman; Md. Shariful Islam
Abstract: Arsenic (As) phytoaccumulation study was conducted with three plant species namely Eichhornia crassipes L. (water hyacinth), Echinochloa crusgalli L. (barnyard grass) and Monochoria hastata L. (water taro) in crop land soils contaminated by naturally and artificially from sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). Phytoaccumulation of As increased significantly with increasing soil As levels. In artificially As contaminated soils, highest As concentration was recorded in water hyacinth (67.9 and 46.83 mg kg-1 root and shoot, respectively) followed by water taro and barnyard grass at 100 mg As kg-1 treated soil. For naturally As contaminated soils, the highest accumulation of As in barnyard grass (56.93 and 26.50 mg kg-1 root and shoot, respectively) followed by water taro and water hyacinth in Paranpur soils (116 mg As kg-1 soil). The enrichment factor of arsenic in both artificially and naturally arsenic contaminated soils, root and shoot parts of these plant species were found to be in the sequence of soil root shoot. In most cases, arsenic translocation factor of soil to root and root to shoot is 0.5 to 1.0 indicated that main application of these plants is for arsenic phytoaccumulation from soil. Highest bio-concentration factor (2300) values were found in barnyard grass root than water taro (2184.55) and water hyacinth (1336.36) and this values always 10 times higher (293-2300) in the plant parts grown in the contaminated site compare to uncontaminated site. Current study revealed that, these plant species can be used as arsenic accumulator in arsenic contaminated soils.
Keywords: Arsenic; Contamination; Bio-concentration Factor; Phytoaccumulation; Soil.
Authors: Tímea Kollarics; István Lük?
Abstract: In this paper, we would like to present the connection between sustainable development and adult education, which has been explored less in Hungary. In the framework of theoretical relations, we are going to touch upon technical development and its consequences, as well as the principles of sustainable development. The notion of ecological footprint has played an important role in environmental education and in the development of awareness. We examined the connection of sustainability from the conceptual-theoretical aspect, and we conducted empirical research in three field venues basically with two kinds of methods. We would also like to present the results of that in this lecture. We examined the adults visiting the educational paths with questionnaires. We interviewed the professionals of the nature school and the educational paths.
Keywords: Adult Education; Ecological Footprint; Educational Path; Environmental Awareness; Sustainable Development
Authors: Yaseen T. Mustafa
Abstract: Biophysical parameter values such as LAI have proved useful in a number of environmental applications. An approach is presented for producing the spatio-temporal estimation of leaf area index (LAI) of a heterogeneous forest using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images. This is performed by decomposing MODIS LAI for a heterogeneous forest using the Linear Mixture Model (LMM) and the information about the class fraction from an aerial image. Results showed that the decomposed MODIS LAI values were estimated well with maximum and minimum RMSE of 0.37, and 0.17, respectively. We concluded that our approach can be used to decompose MODIS LAI successfully for any heterogeneous forest.
Keywords: Leaf Area Index (LAI); Mixed Pixels; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Satellite Imagery