Volume 3 Issue 5

Authors: B Manu; S. Shrihari; Shrikant S Jahagirdar

Abstract: Investigation of the effect of Textile mill sludge addition in burnt clay bricks is done under this study. Chemical composition of sludge and soil samples was analysed by ICP-AES, SEM and XRF facilities. Sludge percentage is varied from zero to thirty-five percent by weight. Firing temperature and firing period are varied to understand the variations in characteristics of burnt bricks. Parameters such as compressive strength, density, water absorption, efflorescence and ringing sound are studied as per BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) procedures. Density of bricks, compressive strength and ringing sound reduces as sludge content in bricks increases whereas water absorption and efflorescence increases. Higher firing temperature and firing period i.e. 8000C and 24 hours give good results in terms of compressive strength with same percentage of sludge as compared to other temperature and firing period combinations. Textile mill sludge up to 15% can be added so as to get compressive strength greater than 3.5 N/mm2.

Keywords: Keywords- Firing temperature; Firing period; textile mill sludge; Compressive strength; Water absorption


Authors: Nouha Taifi

Abstract: Environmental protection is one of the key success factors to sustainable development of all kinds. For this, there are continuously research and development and the creation of innovative solutions leading to these objectives. The paper presents an interesting project and its start-up that aims at the use of human-hair to make products as clothes, accessories or to integrate it to furnishments. This human-hair will be provided or bought from suppliers as hair-cut shops or beauty centers in which there are waxing services. This new innovative business named ‘Eahawe –Easy Hair Wearing’ is expected to bring to the market new products and to have a lot of success by contributing to environmental and also animal protection since it can increase awareness about the dangers of the use of animal furry by being a substitute to animal furry. The paper also presents a design of a possible product, the product development process from suppliers to after-sales services, and the business and marketing strategy showing the financial forecasts and motivations for high economic performance.

Keywords: Environmental Protection; Research and Development; Human-Hair Based Products; Recycling Process and Business


Authors: F.N. Wachira; T. Kinyanjui; J.K. Wanyoko; K.O. Moseti

Abstract: Fluoride in food is currently a subject of immense interest globally as it is directly related to health and disease. Tea leaves are rich in fluoride, part of which is released into the tea liquor during the tea making process. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the levels of fluoride in tea liquors prepared from different grades of black Cut, Tear and Curl (CTC) tea sourced from various tea growing regions in Kenya as well as other tea producing countries in East Africa (Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania). The fluoride levels in tea liquors (1 g of black tea + 100 ml of boiling distilled water agitated on a mechanical shaker for 10 minutes) were quantified to be in the range between 0.11 and 1.35 µg/ml using a simple, reliable and cheap potentiometric method by a Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode (FISE). These results confirm that tea consumption is indeed an important dietary source of fluoride. Also, these data demonstrate regional variations in the fluoride contents as tea liquors of the black CTC tea samples from different regions varied widely in terms of their fluoride contents.

Keywords: Fluoride; Black CTC Tea; Tea liquor; Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode


Authors: Hassan Hashemi; Ramazan sadeghi; Abdolmajid Fadaei; Mehraban Sadeghi

Abstract: In order to increase yield and quality of some fruits and vegetables, pesticides are repeatedly applied during the entire growth period. The aim of this study was to monitor Oxydemeton-methyl residuals (as a model pesticide) in cucumbers and tomatoes, as the most consumed vegetables and also grown in greenhouse farms of Shahrekord, Iran. The vegetable samples were collected in during a six-month period from two big greenhouse farms located in Shahrekord vicinity which use this pesticide. Sampling was accomplished after one week of any stage of pesticides spray application. Analyses were performed by Gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The average values of pesticide residuals in unwashed, washed and peeled cucumber samples were 0.23± 0.17, 0.18± 0.1, 0.15± 0.6 0.08± 0.5(μg/kg) respectively. The average values of the residues in unwashed, washed and peeled tomato samples were 1.61± 0.8, 0.85± 0.09, 0.67± 0.04 (μg/kg) respectively. The results showed that the pesticide residuals in total cucumber and tomato samples were more than permissible limit. Peeling and washing were effective but didn’t decrease the pesticide level lower than the permissible limit. Consumers are recommended to wash and to peel cucumbers and tomatoes before they consume in order to reduce daily intake of the toxicants through the diet.

Keywords: Pesticide Residuals; Oxydemeton-methyl; Greenhouse Vegetables; Cucumber; Tomato


Authors: Sadek AWAD

Abstract: This study is the first project in Lebanon which determines the origin of the mineralisation of groundwater by using isotopes. The stable isotope of the sulphur atom (34S) and the 18O of the sulphates (S18O4) give information about the type of the mineralization of the groundwater existing during the water seepage. The decrease of the concentrations in dissolved SO4 2- (meq/L) versus the increase of δ18O (‰ vs. SMOW) of the sulphates (S18O4 2-) confirms a partial reduction of the dissolved sulphates in the water. The Under-saturated waters versus the gypsum do not cause the precipitations of the sulphates. The study of δ34S (‰ CD) vs. Cl- (mg/L) indicates high variations in δ34S (‰ CD) for weak difference in the Cl- (mg/L) content, this is due to the reduction of the dissolved sulphates. Concerning the Jurassic water in Lebanon, an oxidation of the sulphide can take place. The purpose of the work is to identify the geochemical facies of local groundwater, to determine their chemical quality, and to define the geochemical conditions of refill and the origin of the mineralization of waters.

Keywords: Sulphur 34; Mineralisation; Sulphates; Bekaa; Lebanon


Authors: Yang Mei

Abstract: -In this paper, the basic concept of the protected plants and classification are briefly introduced, and analyzed the status quo of rare endangered seed plants in China (see the appendix).Also discussed the protection of endangered plant shortcomings and given several advices:1.Protection mechanism is not perfect, lack of local and pertinence, government agencies need to increase capital investment and the strengthening of effective management; 2.Botanical Garden is not rational and Lack of relevant personnel, need to take a more rational deploy;3. Endangered seed plants need sustainable development and utilization, protection by exploiting its own value; 4. Publicity has to hove local characteristics to change the wrong conception of people, universal relevant laws and regulations.

Keywords: Rare Endangered Seed Plants; Protection; Living Situation