Volume 3 Issue 7
Authors: Ritesh K Singh; D. S. Ramteke; H. D. Juneja; G. H. Pandya
Abstract: Study of ambient air quality data of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is of growing importance due to the inclusion of these parameters in the new notification November 2009 by MoEF, India and in view of health impacts of VOCs, their occupational exposures at workplace. Measurements were carried out for 8 hours to generate the database regarding exposures of the workers and the village inhabitants. The samples were adsorbed on activated charcoal tubes and subsequently desorbed using thermal desorption unit and analyzed by GC/FID system. The 8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) of Total BTEX inside refinery, at boundary walls and in nearby villages around the refinery varies in the range of 21.61–56.67 μg/m³, 5.03–16.88 μg/m³ and 3.69– 7.91 μg/m³ respectively. The decrease in 8–hour TWA and concentration ratios of BTEX at boundary walls and nearby villages indicate that the exposure of these aromatic compounds on the nearby village inhabitants is negligible. The study also reports fugitive emissions data of VOCs near major activities in the refinery. Specific guidelines were needed to combat these uncontrolled fugitive emissions of Total VOCs at petroleum refineries.
Keywords: BTEX; 8–hour TWA; Occupational Exposure; Boundary Walls; Villages Inhabitants
Authors: Miimu Airaksinen
Abstract: The aim of the study was to find out how hygroscopic material such as wood is influencing the comfort of indoor conditions (humidity). For the field measurement 14 single family houses were chosen, which represented massive hygroscopic, massive non-hygroscopic, light hygroscopic and light non-hygroscopic structures. According to the measurements there is no significant difference in behaviour when monthly values (temperature and relative humidity) were compared. However, when daily values were studied, differences can be found. The interior (furnishing, textiles, carpets etc.) has a high impact on hygroscopic behaviour of indoor climate. Thus, the non-hygroscopic structures were actually somewhat hygroscopic due to the interior.
Keywords: Moisture Capacity; Air Change Rate; Wood Products Indoors
Authors: Beniamino Murgante; Rosa Lasaponara; Gabriele Nolè
Abstract: In last decades the spreading of new buildings, road infrastructures and a scattered proliferation of houses in zones outside urban areas, produced countryside urbanization with no rules, consuming soils and impoverishing the landscape. Such a phenomenon generated a huge environmental impact, diseconomies and a decrease in life quality. Although urban growth is perceived as necessary for a sustainable economy, uncontrolled or sprawling urban growth can cause various problems, such as loss of open space, landscape alteration, environmental pollution, traffic congestion, infrastructure pressure, and other social and economical issues. This study analyzes processes concerning land use change, paying particular attention to urban sprawl phenomenon. The application is based on the integration of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing adopting open source technologies. The objective is to understand size distribution and dynamic expansion of urban areas in order to define a methodology useful to both identify and monitor the phenomenon. The application has been developed in a heavily anthropized area in southern Italy, Apulia region, using free spatial data and free multispectral and multitemporal satellite data (Apulia region was one of the first regions in Italy to adopt open data policies). An integration of free software (Linux Ubuntu, GRASS GIS and Quantum GIS, R) and data (Landsat) has been proposed in order to quantify phenomenon evolution. In order to produce more reliable data, autocorrelation techniques have been implemented in open source software.
Keywords: Urban Sprawl; Remote Sensing; Spatial Autocorrelation; Change Detection; Open Source Software; Open Data
Authors: Suman Aryal; Ganesh Raj Joshi; Govinda Bhandari; Anup K. C.
Abstract: Forest can capture and retain large amount of carbon over long periods. To estimate the climate change mitigation potential from carbon stock of the forest, the study was conducted in Ghwangkhola Sapaude Babiyabhir Community Forest (GSBCF) in SyangjaDistrict of Nepal. The total carbon stock of forest was measured from April 1-25, 2011 by following the Forest Carbon Measurement guideline. The forest was with Castonopsis-Scima lying at an altitude range of 970 to1320 masl. More than 90% of the trees having a diameter of less than 20 cm indicate high potential of increasing biomass in the future. The above ground tree biomass, above ground sapling biomass, biomass in herbs and litter and below ground biomass was 126.3, 2.88, 7.54 and 27.34 ton/ha, respectively. The total carbon stock, annual carbon sequestration rate and total CO2 mitigation potential was 122.29, 0.45 and 1.64 ton/ha, respectively. Reduced emission from deforestation and degradation (REDD) should be implemented for getting monetary benefit of carbon dioxide mitigation that will help to conservation of forest.
Keywords: Climate Change; Mitigation; Carbon Sequestration; Community Forest