Volume 3 Issue 8
Authors: Crescenzio Gallo; Alessandro Rinaldi; Vito Capozzi
Abstract: A very significant issue today concerns the problem of air pollution caused mainly by human activity. The statistics show that most of the pollutants in the atmosphere are due to emissions caused by anthropogenic factors (e.g. power and industrial plants, traffic and combustion phenomena in general). In this paper we evaluate the implementation of a model using artificial neural networks to forecast short-term rate of air pollution for supporting environmental policy decisions.
Keywords: Air Pollution; Forecasting; Artificial Neural Network
Authors: Adam Senalik; Megan McGovern; Frank C. Beall; Henrique Reis
Abstract: A plane strain, two-dimensional, finite-difference time domain model is used to simulate wave propagation through wooden utility poles cross-sections. Simulation results are then used to develop metrics capable of detecting and assessing the level of internal decay. Computer tomography scans of utility pole cross-sections are used to create simulations that accurately reflect the poles both in terms of wood density and geometry. The dependence of both the wave velocity and attenuation upon frequency and mass loss is included in the model. After model validation using analytical and experimental data, the developed metrics are then used to estimate the defect size and location within cross-sections of three different utility poles. Results indicate that detected regions of decay are within 2% of the wooden poles cross-sectional area.
Keywords: Wooden Utility Poles; Structural Lumber; Wood Decay; Mass Loss; Safety; Damage
Authors: Maria Perevochtchikova; Pierre André
Abstract: In this work we perform the revision of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in Mexico and Canada based on the comparative analysis at national and regional levels of federal District and Quebec with the objective of contributing to improvement of this environmental public policy instrument directed to implementation of the principles of sustainable development in environmental protection. As was observed, Canada has much experience and important advances in this topic, and Mexico that has several methodological, legal and practical problems, could follow the example of Canada and use this knowledge to reflect about the challenges of the EIA.
Keywords: Environmental Impact Assessment; Mexico; Canada; Comparative Analysis
Authors: Abraham E. Ali; Lami A. Nnamonu
Abstract: In many parts of the world, the market for food from organic farms is growing, especially as consumers have become more aware of food-safety issues, environmental preservation and wildlife protection. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate farmers and consumer perception of organic farming and issues associated with agrochemical use in Makurdi, Benue State of Nigeria. Structured interview schedule containing both close and open ended questions was administered to 150 respondents (farmers and consumers) consisting of 94 males and 56 females. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistical instruments of frequency counts and percentages. Chi-squared test was employed as test of significance. 56% of respondents had a positive perception towards organic farming while 38% had a negative perception and 6% were undecided. Even though 58.67% agree that fertilizers and pesticides are effective, with 40% disagreeing and 1.33% undecided, 90.66% agreed that these agrochemicals can damage the environment, 7.34% disagreed and 2% were undecided. The study showed that organic farming and organic food are cheaper than conventional (or industrial) where 79.33 and 58.67% agreed, 18.00 and 30.67% disagreed and 2.67 and 10.66% were undecided, respectively. There were significant relationships (P≤ 0.05) between respondents’ gender, age, educational background, respondent type and perception of organic farming and agrochemical use.
Keywords: Agrochemical Use; Organic Farming; Perception