Volume 3 Issue 5

Authors: Abue A.D; Ujaddughe M.O; Adebayo – taiwo J

Abstract: Occupation refers to job or profession (Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary). Abuja is made up of mostly federal government workers, contractors, traders, students, tourists, diplomats, politicians, etc. The research was retrospective. The tool used was patients folder in the gynecological unit of the Wuse General Hospital. The research looked at the prevalence of abortion among these four groups of persons (traders, public servants, house wives, students). Our findings show that abortion was prevalent among traders (32.4%) and public servants (29.4%) most of whom were married. The students were the least probably because the data was collected from a government hospital; this may not reflect the actual percentage of students since most of them have multiple sex partners. Government hospitals attend to life threatening abortions. There is a low patronage to family planning. This will increase the incidence of abortions in Abuja if government and other anti-abortion crusaders do not take proactive steps to enhance the knowledge of sex education and reproductive health via the use of both prints and electronic media as well as religious leaders and traditional rulers. Drug vendors and other quacks should be well educated on the dangers of abortions to residence of Abuja and its environs. In conclusion this research work wills open doors for more research in the various private clinics in the six area council of Abuja.

Keywords: Abortion; Abuja; Occupation; Prevalence


Authors: Yanyan Yang; Hui Wang; Zhixing Hu; Fucheng Liao

Abstract: In this paper, we have considered an in-host viral model with humoral immunity and Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. For this model, we constructed suitable Lyapunov functional and used LaSalle invariance, we obtained the global stability of three equilibriums which depend on two threshold parameters R0 and R1, that is, if R0≤1, the infected-free equilibrium E0 is globally asymptotically stable; if R1≤1<R0, the infected equilibrium without B cells response E1* is globally asymptotically stable; and if R1>1 , the infected equilibrium with B cells response E2* is globally asymptotically stable, too. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to support our main results.

Keywords: Global Stability; Delay; Humoral Immunity; Lyapunov Functional


Authors: David M. Compton; Tegan J. Wedge; Katie Poulton

Abstract: While used as paediatric and veterinary anaesthetic and for pain management, the nonselective NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) antagonist ketamine also remains popular among recreational users. As such, there is legitimate concern about the psychological and physiological consequences associated with chronic abuse of this drug. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to ketamine following a period of abstinence in a rodent model of ketamine abuse. In the present experiment, rats were given repeated injections of saline, 5 mg/kg, or 40 mg/kg of ketamine. Beginning at 111 days of age, the animals were tested for retention of an aversive outcome on a step-down avoidance task and assessed for general levels of activity. In addition, the animals were trained on a series of tasks with spatial components of various levels of difficulty, a spatial learning set task, and a nonspatial response learning task. On early trials with water maze tasks of varying difficulty, the ketamine-treated rats were impaired relative to controls, with dose-dependent effects observed on many of the tasks. On probe trials the drug-treated animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant. In addition, the performance of the drug-treated rats was inferior to that of the control animals on a spatial learning set task, and a response learning task suggesting some difficulty in adapting their responses to changing task demands. The results suggest that chronic exposure to this NMDA receptor antagonist in young adult rats is capable of producing a variety of changes that affect nonspatial learning and memory performance in adulthood, well after the drug exposure period.

Keywords: Ketamine; (±)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone); Spatial Learning; Learning Set; Response Learning; Avoidance Learning; Morris Water maze; Memory


Authors: Masahiro Yutani; Akira Ogita; Ken-ichi Fujita; Toshio Tanaka

Abstract: The aminoglycoside antibiotic hygromycin B (HgB) has been widely used in veterinary medicine and in cell culture selection. HgB kills bacteria, fungi, and higher eukaryotic cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. A marked synergistic relationship was observed between HgB and the bactericidal antibiotic polymyxin B (PMB) in their ability to cause cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but this was not observed when S. cerevisiae cells were treated with PMB and a different aminoglycoside selective for prokaryotic organisms. However, the combined lethal actions of HgB and PMB did not depend on the inhibition of 80S ribosomal protein synthesis, even if the ribosome-binding OH of HgB is similarly involved in its PMB-dependent fungicidal activity. Our findings could have implications for improving the use of HgB in veterinary medicine.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Hygromycin B; Polymyxin B; Fungicidal Activity


Authors: Chandra P. Pokhrel; Pramod Kumar Jha; Sushila Shrestha; Ram Kailash P. Yadav

Abstract: Seasonal variation of phyllospheric bacteria and their leaf traits of four woody species of subtropical environment were studied at Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park. The four species examined were Alnus nepalensis D. Don., Schima wallichii (DC.) Korth., Rhododendron arboreum Smith. and Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. The first species is deciduous, second is semi-deciduous and other two are evergreen. The leaf samples were collected during summer and winter seasons in 2010. The estimation of bacterial population was done by the serial dilution plating method using Nutrient Agar Glycerol Medium. The leaf traits such as leaf water content, nitrogen content, phosphorous content, sugar content and specific leaf mass were also estimated. The bacterial population of four woody species ranges from 2.87 to 5.48 log CFU per g f.w. The epiphytic bacterial populations differed among seasons and among species. In subtropical environment bacterial population was found to be limited to leaf phosphorous content.

Keywords: Phyllosphere; Epiphytic Bacterial Population; Leaf Traits; Woody Species; Subtropical Forest; Himalaya