Volume 3 Issue 11

Authors: Richard. L. Charles; P.K.T. Munishi; Emmanuel. F. Nzunda

Abstract: Agroforestry is a climate-smart production system that sustainably diversifies environmental and socio-economic benefits of subsistence farmers, and is therefore considered more resilient than monocropping to increased intensity of extreme weather events. This study was conducted to assess the potential of agroforestry in buffering smallholder`s farmers against climate variability in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Research methodologies used included literature review, questionnaire, and ecological survey. A sample of 103 households engaged in agro forestry (AF) and non-AF were selected randomly from three villages for ecological study which involved an inventory of on farm trees and questionnaire survey for collecting socio-economic data. SPSS computer program was used to analyse socio-economic data. The diversity of benefits in AF practices such as food (59.2%), fodder (58.2%), selling livestock (71%), fruits (54.4%), timber (27.2%) and fuelwood (45.7% ) revealed to increase farmer`s resilience during environmental extremes and climate variability. AF practitioners were richer than non practitioners with an extra income of TAS 988 042 (USD 618) annually. In conclusion, crops integration and diversity in AFS were among the resilient features which reduced farmer’s risk from total crops failure, since the risk of losses from environmental hazards was spread among different crop species. Further increased income as a result of the diversity of products from the agro forestry system(AFS) enhanced the resilience of AF practitioners. But, vigorous efforts are needed to provide knowledge on the AF products value-addition innovation, promoting rich carbon land use, understanding and addressing competing claims on natural resources access and uses.

Keywords: Agroforestry Products; Multipurpose Trees; Products Diversification; Resilience; Sustainability


Authors: Kim Oanh Le Thi; My Dieu Tran Thi; Wim Rulkens

Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of mixture of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with or without pig manure (PM) and digested OFMSW (DOFMSW) by batch reactor with leachate recycling was done at Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The research has carried out in lab- and pilot-scale reactors which have volume of 45 litters and 5 m3, respectively. Maximum biogas production was 378 mL.gVS-1 equal to 59 m3 biogas/ton mixture with wet weight ratio of 10 OFMSW: 1 DOFMSW: 1 PM. Maximum methane content was 63%. The presence of PM in the mixture increased the biogas production while DOFMSW controlled pH and increased methane content in biogas. Pilot–scale gave higher biogas production rate compared to that of lab-scale experiments. The DOFMSW was converted to compost via static pile composting technology within 7 days. The compost yield was in range of 0.2-0.25 ton mixture of waste.

Keywords: Municipal Solid Waste;Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste; Anaerobic Digestion; Aerobic Digestion; Biogas


Authors: S. K. Jha; A.K. Nayak; Y.K. Sharma

Abstract: Geo-statistical technique was used to study the spatial variability of fluoride (F) in the ground water in Unnao District, Uttar Pradesh, India. The delineation and mapping of F were carried out using semi-variograms, based on sampling at random intersection of 5 km x 5 km of square grid from shallow and deep hand pumps during both pre-monsson and post-monsoon seasons. The F concentrations in both shallow and deep handpumps were found to be spatially distributed. The F was estimated by point kriging method at un-sampled site and the interpolated kriged maps prepared, which showed a clear regional spatial variations pattern of F with distinct loops. It was also revealed that the shallow handpumps are highly contaminated with F as compared to deep handpumps.

Keywords: Geo-statistical; Spatial Variability; Delineation; Fluoride; Kriging


Authors: Muhammad Nafees; Muhammad Haya Khan; Shehla Sattar; Rahib Hussain

Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing freshwater consumption through recycling, low cost wastewater treatment and beneficial use of sludge of beverage industry at Hattar industrial estate (HIE), Haripur, Pakistan, under the concept of clean technology and water recycling. Samples were collected from end of pipe and analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters such as flow rate, temperature, conductivity, odor, chloride, sulfate, sodium and calcium which were found below the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQs), while pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were found above the NEQs level. The treatment techniques comprised of sedimentation, coagulation and adsorption, were designed for those parameters which were beyond the Pak-NEQs. The optimum doses of coagulants were 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 ml/l with 5:1 ml alkalinity were identified and removed significant amount of pollution loads. After treatment, the achieved sludge was processed for identification of organic and inorganic contents in terms of their beneficial purposes. The treated water was used for Agriculture, municipal and in industry such as washing of carats, bottles and floor, cooling and other minor activities within the premises of industry.

Keywords: Cleaner Production; Coagulation; Hattar Industrial Estate; Industrial Wastewater; Pollution Loads; Treatment


Authors: S. Kawai; S.M. Imamul Huq; S. Segawa; M. Islam; J.C. Joardar; M. Halder

Abstract: Two experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of application of baked pig manure (BPM) to reduce the arsenic (As) concentration in Japanese mustard spinach (JMS) (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Bangladesh spinach (BS) (Spinacia oleracea) that were grown in arsenic-contaminated Japanese andosol and Bangladesh alluvial soil, respectively. Soil As was artificially raised to 50 mg/kg. BPM was applied to soil at a concentration of 1%, 2%, and 3%; each treatment had four replications. The plants were grown in As-contaminated soil for 30 days. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for As and other elements. Plant As concentrations decreased significantly with BPM application compared to that in control plants in both experiments. The plant As concentrations based on plant dry weight (DW) were reduced by 61% and 49% in Japanese andosol and Bangladesh alluvial soil, respectively, compared with those of control plants. The total As uptake (μg/plant) was higher in JMS and lower in BS than that in controls. Plant DW increased significantly with increasing amounts of BPM, which might function to decrease the As concentration in plants. The phosphorous (P) contents of both JMS and BS increased significantly with BPM application, whereas the calcium content decreased. The decreased plant As concentration might be due to P supplied by BPM, which might competitively suppress As uptake. We conclude that BPM could be a cost-effective, environmentally friendly, non-toxic soil additive for reducing As concentrations in edible plants. This strategy will ultimately safeguard the food supply from As contamination.

Keywords: Arsenic; Soil; Contamination; Baked Pig Manure (BPM); Vegetable; Phosphate