Volume 4 Issue 1
Authors: K. Mophin-Kani; A.G. Murugesan
Abstract: River monitoring study was conducted to assess the current water quality status employing macrobenthic organisms as pollution indicators at 12 sampling stations of the perennial river Tamirabarani during March to December 2008. The river is the main source for potable water supply, irrigation, domestic uses, industrial processes etc., to the two districts namely Tirunelveli and Thotthukudi with the population of more than 42,96,261 people. Based on the physicochemical study, the river water quality deteriorates mainly due to organic contaminants which was measured through high BOD, COD and TKN content of the water samples and due to high discharge of domestic discharges, sewage wastes, open defecation, livestock discharges all along the river course. A sum of 3372 macrobenthic individuals comprising of 58 families were collected during the study. The macrobenthic abundance (97 numbers) was perceived at Pabanasam (T1) during March and June; less (36 numbers) assemblage was observed at Thiruppudaimaruthur (T4). The Family Biotic Index level indicates excellent quality at 10.42% of the sampling stations, very good quality at 6.25% stations, good quality at 25% stations, fair quality at 20.83% stations, fairly poor quality at 16.67% stations and poor quality of water at 20.83% of the stations; EPT and EPT/C Index shows uneven distribution of pollution sensitive and pollution tolerant organisms throughout the river system. ASPT and BMWP score of the study showed the water quality from excellent to poor. At present the perennial river is under threat of anthropogenic disturbances during festival periods especially at upstream areas, Tirunelveli city and suburban reaches due to higher pilgrimage and various religious and rituals practices.
Keywords: Tamirabarani River; Water Quality Assessment; Biomonitoring; Pollution Indicator Organisms; Biological Indices
Authors: Ashwin Kumar; Deepchandra Srivastava; Manish Agrawal; Anubha Goel
Abstract: Results from this air pollution monitoring study reveal high particulate matter mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) emitted from different sources at major road and railroad intersections in Kanpur city during summer and winter seasons of the year 2011. Construction activity was found to contribute significantly to coarse PM load in ambient air. Total Suspended Particulate Matter (TSPM) and PM10 levels were generally higher at vehicular intersections and construction sites. Among the three railroad sites examined within the city, Kalyanpur, which allows passage of Heavy Duty Vehicles as well, had the highest PM10 (1110 μg m−3), PM2.5 (124 μg m−3), and PM1 (46 μg m−3) levels. Our observations suggest that railroad intersections are possibly important sources contributing significantly to total PM load in ambient air. Results are expected to aid in highlighting ‘hot spots’ and help focus pollution prevention and mitigation efforts.
Keywords: PM10; PM2.5; PM1; Air Pollution; Vehicular Emission; Construction Activity; Railroad Intersection
Authors: Lindis Skipperud; Brit Salbu; Ermias Deribe; Alemayehu E. Masresha; Peder August Gade; Siri Berger; Bj?rn Olav Rosseland; Reidar Borgstr?m; Elias Dadebo; Zinabu Gebremariam; Ole Martin Eklo
Abstract: The concentration and accumulation of total mercury (THg) in relation to size, diet and trophic position of the fish have been investigated in three fish species, i.e., Barbus intermedius, Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus, from Lake Koka and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Stomach content analysis and stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N, ‰) and carbon (δ13C, ‰) were used to determine the diet and the trophic position of the fish. The fish species studied represented different trophic positions in the food chain of the lakes. The THg concentrations in each of the three fish species, B. intermedius, C. gariepinus, and O. niloticus, ranged between non-detectable (ND) and 0.9 mg kg–1 (ww) in Lake Koka, and between ND and 0.5 mg kg–1 (ww) in Lake Ziway, respectively. Significantly a higher concentration of THg was found in B. intermedius than in C. gariepinus and O. niloticus, in Lake Koka, whereas in Lake Ziway, B. intermedius had significantly higher THg concentrations than O. niloticus only. Species variation in total THg accumulation is attributed to size, diet and trophic position of the fish.
Keywords: Fish Species; Rift Valley Lakes; Trophic Position; Hg