Volume 4 Issue 1

Authors: Ismail Saadoun; Alia Ahmad; Aisha Nasir; Ban Al-Joubori; Ali El-Keblawy

Abstract: The effects of the organic and aqueous extracts of the invasive plant Prosopis juliflora (Al Ghwaif) and the exotic P. cineraria were evaluated on the growth of soil microbiota, four different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and on seed germination of two desert plants (Halocnomum strobilacum and Halopoplis perfoliata). The results revealed that the frequency and abundance of different microbial soil species were higher in control soil, compared with soils from the rhizosphere of the two Prosopis species. However, the reduction was significantly greater in the soil of the P. Juliflora, compared with that of P. cineraria. Well diffusion experiments showed that the methanolic extract of P. juliflora dry leaves resulted in the maximum zone of inhibition with a diameter of 31 mm against soil consortium culture when compared to 11 mm by the fresh leaves extract. In comparison, slight inhibition (8 mm) was observed in the extract of P. cineraria dry leaves but the fresh leaves extract failed to inhibit the growth of any microbe. The test for the activity of methanolic P. juliflora and P. cineraria against two Gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) showed that P. juliflora has the highest activity on all four tested bacteria with maximum of 32 mm in diameter against B. Subtilis. All experiments indicated that organic and/or aqueous extracts of P. cineraria dry and/or fresh leaves showed slight or no inhibition of all tested soil and pathogenic microbes. Germination of the nontreated seeds of both H. strobilacum and H. perfoliata ranged between 76 and 92%. However, aqueous extract of P. juliflora resulted in a complete inhibition of the germination, but that of P. cineraria resulted in 20-28 reduction in seed germination. It can be concluded that the organic extract of P. juliflora dry leaves displays remarkable activity against soil microbiota, some Gram-positive bacteria, and seed germination of desert plants.

Keywords: Growth; Inhibition; Invasive plants; Microbiota; Seed germination


Authors: Doan Viet Binh; Pham Dinh Minh; Nguyen Bich Nhi; Phan Van Chi; Nguyen Thi Minh Phuong

Abstract: Animal models of diabetes coupled with proteome profiling have great potential not only to provide important insights to the mechanisms of the development of diabetes, its complications, but also help to identify new protein potential candidate biomarkers and to support for therapy of the disease. The aim of this study is to profile thermostable proteins in diabetic cardiovascular rat plasma. Diabetic cardiovascular rats were induced by high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection. Diabetic cardiovascular rat plasma has been used for thermostable pre-fractionation. The thermostable proteins have been separated and identified by using two-dimensional electrophoresis and nanoLC-MS/MS. At least five proteins (fibrinogen alpha chain, antithrombin-III precursor, angiotensinogen 1, haptoglobin, haptoglobin alpha 1S) were significantly up-regulated and three proteins (apolipoprotein A-IV, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-I) were down-regulated in diabetic cardiovascular samples, in which, the concentration of the antithrombin-III increased most (2.87 folds), followed by fibrinogen alpha chain (2.02 folds), angiotensinogen 1 (1.42 folds), haptoglobin (1.97 folds), haptoglobin alpha 1S (1.59 folds), while apolipoprotein A-I decreased 1.37 folds, apolipoprotein A-IV and apolipoprotein E were not detected in diabetic cardiovascular rat’s plasma, as compared with that of the control rats. The different expression level of thermostable proteins in STZ rat plasma could give us new and important evidence for the understanding of the mechanism of diabetic cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Cardiovascular; Rat Plasma; Thermostable Proteins; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus