Volume 3 Issue 4

Authors: R. Fernandes; S. Wang; A. Simic

Abstract: Climate and land cover changes impact groundwater resources primarily through changes in net surface recharge. Actual evapotranspiration and the partitioning between runoff and groundwater infiltration govern the rate of aquifer recharge. Remote sensing technology opens up new possibilities for groundwater recharge modeling through a rapid method of acquiring up-to-date information at high spatial resolution over a large geographical area. Using the Ecological Assimilation of Climate and Land Observations (EALCO) model, we assess the importance of remote sensing derived land cover, leaf area index (LAI) and soil texture in estimating evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge within the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), a complex groundwater recharge area and major aquifer in south-central Ontario, Canada. We explore temporal and spatial dynamics of hydrological variables of the ORM and perform sensitivity analyses based on remote sensing derived inputs to EALCO. The results indicate that LAI is a critical variable of evapotranspiration calculations for the ORM. Soil texture does not have as significant an impact on evapotranspiration as LAI; it is generally found to be a more efficient moderator of recharge and runoff, especially for the soil texture of very fine sand. Based on our results, afforestation of the ORM region would result in the reduction of annual groundwater recharge at the current average precipitation due to increased evapotranspiration. It would also reduce the runoff within the area due to increased evapotranspiration and infiltration.

Keywords: Evapotranspiration; Recharge; Leaf Area Index; Remote Sensing; Sensitivity Analysis


Authors: ALACI Davidson Sunday A; AJIBADE Lanre Tajudeen; IBRAHIM Samuel Ibbi

Abstract: Niger State water facilities scarcely perform effectively. Average of seven persons per household was used at 50 liters per head as bases for assessing the variation that exist between household water demand. Coefficient of Variance (CV) and T-test distribution were used in establishing water deficit for medium-sized towns. Value of water sources distribution is of negative relationship cal-t=11.97 is relatively higher than tab-t = 2.06. Medium-sized towns are grossly in deficit of enough domestic water supply due to distance of most households from sources of water, inability of obtaining enough container for preserving water and lack of maintainers culture. There is the need to create public awareness in respect of obtaining sufficient water for domestic utility. Households should avoid the danger of consuming substandard water by constructing water storage and treatment plants in every medium-sized town, Workable policy of maximum threshold of twenty-five households per borehole or ten households to a well.

Keywords: Domestic Water, Medium-sized Towns, Water Facilities, Water Deficit, Maintenance Culture


Authors: R. W.Gaikwad; A. R.Warade

Abstract: Nitrate contamination of the world's groundwater supply poses a serious human health threat. High nitrate levels found in drinking water have been proven to be the cause for numerous health conditions across the world. Nitrate is highly soluble in water and it is retained by the soil at a minimum rate, which makes it a major component of groundwater in formation of nitrate pollution. In this study, natural Zeolite-stilbite was used as a low-cost adsorbent to evaluate its ability to remove nitrate from groundwater by ion exchange. Experimental investigation of nitrate removal from groundwater using natural Zeolite was carried out in the laboratory. In this investigation a natural Zeolite-stilbite was used for the removal of nitrate. It was found that 92% removal of nitrates occurs at initial concentration of 80 mg NO3/l solution. The effects of various parameters such as pH, flow rate, initial concentration have been studied. The optimum pH was found to be 4. The maximum removal took place at a flow of 1ml/min in a laboratory Ion Exchanger. All the findings were observed at 60 cm bed depth. When compared with the activated carbon, it was found that the natural Zeolite-stilbite was more efficient in removal of nitrate. Resins were regenerated by circulating the regenerating agent i.e. NaCl.

Keywords: Nitrate Pollution; Natural Zeolite; Ion Exchange; Ph; Regeneration