Volume 4 Issue 4

Authors: Md. Sazzad Ansari; Md. Rezaul Karim; Ramkrishno Das; Bishwajit Mallick; Animesh Kumar Gain; Kushal Roy

Abstract: Due to uncontrolled rapid industrialization and the lack of decisive and effective policy framework, river water pollution is posing an increasing threat to surface water irrigation in Bangladesh. In this paper, irrigation water quality and possible sources of pollution in the watershed of the Khiru River have been assessed. Results indicate severe degradation in water quality likely to cause serious damage to crop production. The presence of severe alkali hazards and heavy metals pose further threats to the future. Multivariate analysis suggests that industrial and municipal wastewater may be a possible cause of such degradation. The immediate formulation and implementation of water pollution prevention policies and strategies are therefore recommended to minimize farming threats to 7000 ha of land and 20,000 families depending on the river for survival.

Keywords: River Water Quality; Irrigation; Industrial Pollution; Heavy metal; Policy; Management


Authors: Amar Kant Gautam; Ashish Pandey; S.K. Mishra

Abstract: This study attempts to assess the soil erosion of a Himalayan River Basin, Karnali and Nepal using the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) derived from satellite rainfall estimates (TRMM-3B42 V7). Average annual sediment yield was estimated using the well-known Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The annual average rainfall erosivity factor (R) for the Karnali River basin over eight years was found to be 2620.84 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1. Using intensity-erosivity relationships and a dataset consisting of eight years of TRMM daily rainfall (1998–2005), the average annual soil erosion was also estimated for the Karnali River Basin. Maximum and minimum values of rainfall erosivity varied between 1108.7 and 4868.49 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 yr-1 during the assessment period. The average annual soil loss in the Karnali River basin was found to be 38.17 t ha-1 yr-1. Finally, the total basin area was categorized into the following erosion classes: slight (0 to 5 t ha-1yr-1); moderate (5 to 10 t ha-1yr-1); high (10 to 20 t ha-1yr-1); very high (20 to 40 t ha-1yr-1); Severe (40 to 80 t ha-1yr-1); and Very Severe (>80 t ha-1yr-1). Approximately 30.86% of the river basin area was found to be in the slight erosion class. Areas covered by moderate, high, very high, severe and very severe erosion potential zones accounted for 13.09%, 6.36%, 11.09%, 22.02% and 16.64% of the study area, respectively. This study revealed that approximately 69% of the Karnali River basin needs immediate attention from soil conservation analysts.

Keywords: Soil Erosion; TRMM; USLE; Prioritization; Himalayan River Basin


Authors: S. Law; K. L Pun

Abstract: The Rambler Channel is an 8-kilometer long navigation waterway. A number of bridges are built on piers over the channel; the presence of bridge piers changes the nearby flow regime and induces friction in the ambient tidal currents. This paper presents a hydrodynamic model to study the effects of bridge pier friction on flow reduction in the Rambler Channel. Energy losses due to the bridge piers are estimated by introducing additional quadratic friction terms into momentum equations. Comparisons of the tidal flow patterns, changes in flow rate through the channel, and flow paths in the surface water layer by drogue tracking simulations for situations with and without bridges are presented.

Keywords: Pier Friction; Flow Reduction; Hydrodynamic Model; Drogue Tracking


Authors: Nada Al-Suweidi; Abdelazim Ebraheem; Mohammed Al Mulla; Mohamed M Mohamed

Abstract: Groundwater is the main source of irrigation in the northeastern part of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The excess use of groundwater for irrigation has decreased groundwater flow by almost one tenth. Due to the strategic importance of water resources in the region, and considering the complexity of the aquifer system, the main objective of this paper is to establish an accurate groundwater budget in order to assess water availability in this area. Results show that the current extraction rates are not sustainable and need to be reduced to mitigate the present severe groundwater depletion and to achieve sustainable development in the area.

Keywords: Water Resources Management, Northeastern UAE


Authors: Peter Emmanuel Cookey; Rotchanatch Darnswasdi; Chatchai Ratanachai

Abstract: The study was based on the use of text mining to evaluate the integrative and adaptive elements of water resources for related and relevant institutions in the Songkhla Lake Basin, Thailand. The results were able to show some very interesting patterns like being able to determine the basic statistics of the sets of institutions under review including the degree of fragmentation and gaps, institutional priorities and their capacity to support the element of integrative and adaptive resource management. The major outcome of this work is its ability to prove that the quality of the legal operating documents for state natural resource governance can be quantitatively analysed using the tool and the application of appropriate equations to determine the inherent policy weaknesses, degree of actors vested interests as well as determine the measures of their suitability for enhancement of resources governance.

Keywords: Adaptive; Integrative; Lake Basin; Governance; Management; Institutions


Authors: Muhammad Asad Ghufran; Muhammad Atique Butt; Abida Farooqi; Aniqa Batool; Muhamad Fahad Irfan

Abstract: This study deals with the consumptive water use of some selected crops of Pakistan, including major crops, such as cereals and oil seeds and minor crops including vegetables, fruit, tobacco, tea etc. Water footprints have been calculated using CROPWAT 8.0 (developed by Land and Water Division of FAO). The software bases its calculations on Penman Monteith equation. The study enables us to assess the use of water not in a conventional way of water withdrawal but in terms of water footprint (WF) which characterizes the use of water that does not return to its source or origin in a small time scale. The study compares the water footprint values obtained in current research, with the WF averages globally for the same crops. It has been observed that sorghum, barley, millet and oil crops such as ground nut, soybean and sunflower notably use high quantities of water in the local conditions as compared to the global averages of the same. Most of these are estimated at a higher side of WF, as high as double of the global averages. Most of the crops in Pakistan indicate water footprint either equal to or greater than the global averages which can be attributed to various factors, most important is principally arid conditions, dry subtropical climate, poor irrigation techniques and water management systems and also low yields lead to higher WF calculation. There have been observed only three crops, viz. wheat, potato and tobacco whose water footprint is lower than the global averages. Tobacco has a water footprint smaller than global average based on the fact that in Pakistan tobacco is the crop whose yield exceeds the global average yields, so its high per unit area production translates into low water footprint. A reduced water footprint is a recommended condition wherein the entity under question uses the least possible amount of water thus demonstrating sustainable use of water.

Keywords: Water Footprint (WF); Cereals; Oil Crop; Minor Crops; CROPWAT 8.0; Penman Monteith Equation; Tobacco; Wheat


Authors: Tsu-Kuang Hsieh

Abstract: The increase in annual sediment deposits in the Feitsui Reservoir is a serious problem. Reservoir dredging is complementary to watershed management to extend the reservoir’s life and eliminate the need for a new water storage project. A cost-benefit analysis was needed to estimate the benefit-cost ratio of dredging. Data and information from five reservoirs that were dredged in Taiwan were used to calculate the input variables for Program Dredge, and a computer program that simulates the effects of dredging. The program was run to calculate the benefit-cost ratio for the five reservoirs. The values of the input variables from the five other watersheds and conservative assumptions were applied to calculate the benefit-cost ratio of dredging for the Feitsui Reservoir.

Keywords: Reservoir Dredging; Program Dredge; Cost-Benefit Analysis


Authors: Praveen Raj Saxena; G Sakram; Sanda Rajitha

Abstract: Fifty Groundwater samples collected in and around Zaheerabad town has been analyzed using ICP-MS, for trace elements like Fe, Co, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Al, and Ni. The Lead concentration in the groundwater of the area ranges from 0.005 µg/l to 0.050 µg/l, out of which 48% of the samples exceed the permissible limit of 0.014 µg/l. The minimum and maximum concentration of Nickel is 0.006 µg/l to 0.259 µg/l, out of which 38% exceed the permissible limits of 0.02 µg/l. The minimum and maximum concentration of Iron is 0.066 µg/l to 0.520 µg/l, 100% exceed the permissible limits of 0.003 µg/l. The minimum and maximum concentration of Aluminum is 0.030 µg/l to 0.387 µg/l out of which 10% exceed the permissible limits of 0.2 µg/l. The permissible limits are as per the WHO 2004 guidelines. The study area has lot of Agricultural activity and crops like sugar cane, Ginger, Turmeric, Maize, Jowar and Cotton are grown using non-judiciously the fertilizers and lot of pesticides. However the high Iron and Aluminum concentration is due to the laterites present in the study area. As water is used for both drinking and irrigation purpose measures has to be taken to reduce to use of fertilizers and pesticides. It is better to go in for organic farming.

Keywords: Trace Elements; Groundwater; Manjra River Basin; Medak; India


Authors: Sudarshan Venkatayogi

Abstract: Hydrogeochemical investigations carried out in parts of granitic tracts of Telangana region of India revealed that the fluoride concentrations in the groundwater are much higher than the prescribed limit (>1.5mg/l). It is observed that fluorine bearing minerals like fluorite and apatite present in granitic rocks are the major source for the excessive fluoride in groundwater. Geology of the area and climatic conditions play vital role for the high concentrations of fluoride in groundwater. In addition, depletion of groundwater levels due to climatic changes is another factor for high incidence of fluorosis.

Keywords: Fluoride; Fluoride Contamination; Groundwater; Granitic Terrain; Fluorine Bearing Minerals; Telangana; India


Authors: Shu-Qing Yang

Abstract: New large dam construction is a worldwide problem due to its negative impacts on the ecosystem, and as a result, it is crucial to investigate the future water supply infrastructures. After comparison with the existing solutions for water supply, such as inland reservoirs, desalination plants and wastewater reuse facilities, we conclude that coastal reservoir will be the dominant solution in the future because: a) increasing numbers of people migrate towards coastal/deltaic regions and more megacities are emerging along the coastline; consequently the water shortage on the coastline is the most severe; b) the future water deficit is huge (about 10 times the flow of the Nile river), with no solution other than the implementations of coastal reservoirs, freshwater reservoirs in the seawater to develop runoff from rivers, able to provide so much water. Now the world only uses 1/6 of total runoff, with the remaining 5/6 of runoff lost to the sea; c) all solutions for water supply have significant impacts on the environment, and only the strategy of using coastal reservoirs is sustainable, as it is without brine as a by-productor high carbon emissions. This paper discusses the supply of water to Beijing and Tianjin, the most notorious region in the world for its thirst. It is found that the water shortage problem in the region can be solved, the efficiency of South-North Water Diversion Project can be improved significantly, and carbon emission can be reduced in the region if this new solution is applied.

Keywords: Coastal Reservoir; Inland Reservoir; Water Supply; South-North Water Diversion Project


Authors: Waikhom Rahul Singh; Manoj K Jain

Abstract: In this study, a continuous soil moisture accounting (SMA) algorithm was used in a Hydrologic Engineering Center-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) to model stream flow in the Vamsadhara River Basin in India. The spatial domain of the catchment was discretised into smaller sub-basins to account for catchment heterogeneity in terms of topography, land use and soil. The SMA algorithm in HEC-HMS was calibrated using data from 1984 to 1989, and has been validated for the period from 1990 to 1993 on a continuous time scale. Statistical and visual evaluation was conducted to determine the performance of the HEC-HMS model in the Vamsadhara River Basin. For the calibration period, the performance of the model ranges from good to very good with a coefficient of determination R2=0.71, Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency EFF=0.701, percentage error in volume PEV=2.64%, percentage error in peak PEP=0.21%, and index of agreement d=0.94. Similarly, the model performance for the validation period ranges from good to very good with R2=0.78, EFF=0.762, PEV=12.33%, PEP = -15.2%, and d= 0.93. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters has also been conducted and the ranking of different parameters have been assigned based on their sensitivity in terms of percent change in simulated runoff volume. Sensitivity analysis helps to understand the behaviour of the model. Overall, the SMA procedure in the HEC-HMS conceptual model performed satisfactorily and can be used for long-term runoff modeling in the Vamsadhara River Basin.

Keywords: Continuous Hydrologic Simulation; SMA; HEC-HMS; Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency; Sensitivity Analysis


Authors: Qiwen Mei; Kihoon Kim; Ihnsup Han

Abstract: 2-Chlorophenol is an important organic pollutants and widely used chemical with potential to harm the environment and human health. In this study, successful degradation of 2-Chlorophenol was achieved with photochemical process. The degradation was found to follow a first-order decay model and the effects on kinetics of several factors were studied. Almost 100% of initial 2-Chlorophenol was removed within 10 min in alkaline conditions (pH 9.0, 10.0 and 11.0) while it took 50 min to reach same removal in acidic condition (pH 5.0, 6.0 and 7.0). Increasing the UV light intensity caused the rate increased, but higher initial 2-Chlorophenol concentrations resulted in lower removal rate. We also analyzed the intermediate products by GC-MS and Chloride ion by IC to make clear the mechanism of the reaction. A possible degradation process was been proposed in this study.

Keywords: 2-Chlorophenol; Photochemical Degradation; Effect Factors; Mechanism


Authors: Lee Kwan-Woo; Ihnsup Han; Kyoung Jae Lim; Ji Chul Ryu

Abstract: 2-This study is conducted to evaluate the effect of reducing pollutant loads with application of the low impact development techniques for total maximum loads management. The basic evaluation tool which used in this study is the SWAT model, which is semi-distributed watershed-scale model. Thus, data of topography, land use plan, soil use map, weather, precipitation, point source pollutant loads and water quality of the studying target watershed are investigated. Then, the efficiency of water quality improvement due to the application of low impact development techniques is evaluated with using modified SWAT model. The applied LID technique in this study is filter strips with 30m. The modified SWAT model contains that reflecting of the shape of actual channel for the South-Korean condition. Using the modified SWAT model which reflects the actual shape of the channel, flow rate of the studying target basin has been simulated. As a result of calibration with SWAT-CUP, it shows high applicability with Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency value of Gyeongan-A site is 0.7733, and Gyeongan-B site is 0.7405. As a result of simulating the T-N loads which validated with the actual water quality data provided by the Ministry of the Environment, it shows that NSE value of Gyeongan-A site is 0.6995, NSE value of Gyeongan-B is 0.6516. It shows that even for the water quality simulation, it has high applicability either. As a result of simulation with scenarios of various conditions, the highest reduction amounts of T-N loads(g) over the area(m²) which applying low impact development techniques to the branches of upstream basin is 1.24g/m².

Keywords: Watershed-scale Model; SWAT Model, Low Impact Development Technique, Total Maximum Loads Management


Authors: Su Young Choi; Keun-Young Park; Ji Hyang Kweon; Hee Jun Kim

Abstract: High concentrations of heavy metal and nitrate nitrogen concentrations cause severe problems in groundwater system all over the world. Especially, arsenic, lead and manganese are the most common heavy metals troubled in groundwater in Korea (Kim et al., 2015). Membrane separation technologies such as electrodialysis (ED) are increasingly being utilized due to its superior removal of dissolved contaminants (Jung et al., 2011; Mendoza et al., 2015; Ortiz et al., 2006). In this study, removal of heavy metals and nitrate nitrogen by an ED system was evaluated with the polluted groundwater in a rural area. Effects of different valance on separation during ED are also discussed.

Keywords: Electrodialysis; Ion Exchange Membrane; Heavy Metal; Nitrate Nitrogen; Groundwater


Authors: Muhammad Masood; Kuniyoshi Takeuchi

Abstract: The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basin is a unique basin in the world in terms of diversified climate. Climatic extremes specifically, floods and droughts are very common here. This study investigated the hydrological persistence characteristics of floods and droughts using Flood Duration Curve (FDC) and Drought Duration Curve (DDC). Duration curves are drawn for precipitation and stream flow at outlets. The curves indicate annual variation of annual maxima (FDC) and minima (DDC) of moving averages of precipitation and streamflow over various time lengths. It was found that those (except FDC of precipitation) of the Meghna show larger departures from the long-term average among three basins. Significantly distinct characteristics in persistence structure have been identified, which can be utilized for flood control, reservoir design and operation, and other implications on policy making for water resources management both in flood and drought.

Keywords: Flood; Drought; Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basin; Flood Duration Curve (FDC); Drought Duration Curve (DDC); Duration Curve


Authors: B. Rajeswara Reddy; K. Rajesh

Abstract: High fluoride concentration in groundwater is a vital health problem in several regions of the world. In India about 72 million people are at risk of developing fluorosis. The prominent health related problems due to high fluoride concentration are dental caries, teeth monitoring, endemic cumulative fluorosis causing skeletal damage and deformation to children and adults. In Telangana State, India several thousands of people in 9 districts are suffering from fluorosis. Mahbubnagar is one of the districts consisting of 63 revenue mandals where many people suffering advanced skeletal and dental fluorosis. Keeping in view of health implications due to high fluoride concentration in the study area of investigation, the assessment of water quality has been carried out in a 557.86 sq.km of Gadwal, Dharur, Itikyal, Maldakal and Aiza mandals. 45 water samples were collected representative of the post-monsoon (winter) and pre-monsoon (Summer) from open wells and bore wells and analyzed for fluoride concentration and other associated chemical parameters. Fluoride concentration in ground water samples of these places varied between 0.9 mg/l and 4.0 mg/l. 22 water samples are exceeding the permissible limit of fluoride, 1.5 mg/l. The main sources of fluoride are weathering and leaching of fluoride bearing minerals under alkaline environment. In addition, the concentration of fluoride is aided by high rate of evaporation, longer residence time of water in aquifer zone in the investigation area. The above work helps in the long run to integrate with water grid system being proposed in the district by the Government of Telangana to mitigate the drinking water crisis of the region. Further, we explored and addressed the possibilities of remedial measures in this paper.

Keywords: Fluoride concentarion; Quality of groundwater; Fluorosis


Authors: Suresh Sharma; Keshav Khanal; Taylor A Marucci

Abstract: The conventional point source discharge permitting decision through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is primarily based on the regulatory low flows such as hydrological (7Q10, 1Q10), biological (4B3, 4B1) and seasonal low-flow conditions. These regulatory low flow conditions are often estimated based on long-term historical flow data and can be expected to meet regulatory water quality protection provided that long-term data are utilized. Since climate change has potential to change the future low flow in the stream, concerns arise regarding the benefit of using long-term data for regulatory low flow estimation. We conducted a study in the Ohio River Basin and some of the selected regions of the Mid-Atlantic and Great Lake to examine the relevance of long-term data for regulatory low estimation. First, we detected the climate change pattern, and then, the study was conducted at various hydro-climatic data network (HCDN) stations to analyze the sensitivity of estimated hydrological/biological conditions on the length of data records. We analyzed the long-term data records for regulatory low flow estimation using various spans of data records. Our analysis indicated that long-term data were not necessarily beneficial for regulatory low flow estimation. The 50th percentile area-normalized 7Q10 indicated that 50 to 60 years of data was sufficient to capture minimum low flows. The average normalized 7Q10 computed using more than 60 years of records started increasing. However, the mean and median 7Q10 computed separately for summer and winter tended to increase for the last 40 years and decreased for the data used beyond 40 years of record. In summary, data of more than 60 years duration in any period over the historical period may not be needed to capture the lowest flow in this climatic region as the lowest flow either increases or remains constant after this period. Our analysis suggests that the large period of records may not be beneficial for regulatory low flow estimation.

Keywords: NPDES Permitting; Low Flow; 7Q10; 1Q10; 4B3; 1B3; Hydrologic and Biologic Condition


Authors: Chao Li; Jiashun Cao

Abstract: The microbial community of a MFC anode bio-film was studied in continuous period over the whole operation process, with corresponding MFC performance investigated. Results clearly showed that in the 75 days’ operation, the microbial community changed. Different enrichment processes (over the whole operation process) of the found exoelectrogenic bacteria (previous reported) were observed, including: enriched gradually, sharply or constantly, which indicated their various extracellular electrons transfer mechanisms. Shewanella oneidensis and Rhodospirillum rubrum etc. with gradually increasing enrichment on the anode were finally predominant in the anode biofilm. Correlation analysis showed that the anode microbial community (including both biodiversity and abundance of exoelectrogenic bacteria) and MFC performances (including power generation and coulombic efficiency) have certain correlations, which indicated the anode microbial information can predict the MFC performance. Study of the correlation analysis showed that the abundance of exoelectrogenic bacteria took more responsibility for the coulombic efficiency, comparing to the power generation in MFC.

Keywords: Microbial Fuel Cells, Anode, Coulombic Efficiency, Biofilm, Microbial Community, Exoelectrogenic Bacteria