Volume 6 Issue 1

Authors: Awokunmi E. E.

Abstract: The use of fast-growing tropical plants in planning phytoextraction strategies has been documented by several researchers. The work presented here examines the effect of germination on chelate-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals by Abelmoschus esculentus cultivated on the Bashiri dumpsite Ado Ekiti. Topsoil (0 – 15 cm) samples were randomly collected from the dumpsite, control samples were collected in similar manner at 200 m away from the dumpsite. The pH, content of organic matter, cation exchange capacity as well as heavy metals concentrations of the soil samples were determined after the soil samples were treated properly. The seedlings of Abelmoschus esculentus was cultivated in different pots (for soil with EDTA) and control pots (for soil without EDTA), these plants were subsequently nurtured maturity by daily irrigation. The plants were harvested into parts at different germination stages, after which heavy metals concentrations (Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Co, Cu,Fe, Mn, and Ni) were determined. The result revealed the mean pH, content of organic matter and cation exchange capacity on dumpsite of 7.50 ± 0.12, 7.8 ± 0.12%, 40.10 ± 0.11 mmol/kg, respectively. The values for pH and the organic matter were higher than those obtained from control sites. Though, heavy metals concentrations on the dumpsite were higher than control site, their values reduced considerably to maturity. Early symptoms of phytotoxicity were noticed with an application of 0.2 g/kg EDTA of soil, which only affected the biomass levels of the experimental Abelmoschus esculentus but increased the concentrations of heavy metals in the plant shoot when compared with non-chelate assisted process. However, TF, BF and RR values greater than one measure phtoextraction efficiency, an indication of the possible application Abelmoschus esculentus for phytoextraction strategies.

Keywords: Effect; Chelate Assisted; Heavy Metals; Phytoextractio; Basiri Dumpsite


Authors: John Black; Kam Tara; Parisa Pakzad

Abstract: lobal warming poses particular challenges for urban areas due to the greater intensity of rainfall and issues of stormwater runoff, and the heat island effect generated by the reflection of the sun off hard surfaces, such as buildings and road pavements; for example, in Australian cities (i.e., Sydney), roads account for approximately 25% of all urban land use. The challenge for road authorities is to implement green infrastructure in road planning, design and implementation as the term “green infrastructure” has appeared increasingly throughout the world in land management and planning. Despite these environmental challenges, traditional highway engineering practices use arguments regarding the economic inefficiencies of urban traffic congestion to justify the business case for road-widening schemes and new road construction projects with associated de-forestation and vegetation loss. An international literature review and site visits of green infrastructure best practice in Australia, Singapore, the U.K. and the USA is reported. A typical road authority project is described in Sydney, Australia, where the initial design concept to accommodate growth in all modes of transport was road widening and land acquisition, but the authors persuaded the local and state government authorities to consider other options to “green” the infrastructure, particularly opportunities to add trees and vegetation near the roadway, which provide the additional bonus of managing surface water runoff. From this general problem, the case for, and value to, road authorities to develop green infrastructure guidelines for project planning and implementation, are presented. The conclusions include ongoing research to formulate draft guidelines for governments based on a holistic approach to the planning and design of high-density urban development around transport nodes that includes green infrastructure principles.

Keywords: Green Infrastructure; Road Planning and Implementation; Best Practice Guidelines


Authors: Olabanji I.O; Ogunfowokan A.O; Adeyeye O.F

Abstract: This study investigated the heavy metal speciation of surface runoff and associated sediments in Osogbo and Ile-Ife to determine the contribution of heavy metals to environmental pollution in the area. Samples were collected along major roads with high traffic density within each town, and processed appropriately. The sequential extraction described by Tessier, et al. 1979 and Tokalioglu, et al. 2000 were used to respectively fractionate the sediment and water samples, which were then analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry(AAS) to determine concentrations of four heavy metals: Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd. Results indicated that the pH values of the collected runoff samples ranged from 6.80-8.10 to 6.80-7.40 in Osogbo and Ile-Ife, respectively. The total metal concentrations in the Osogbo samples ranged from 14.48-26.03µgg-1Cd, 99.73-156.45µgg-1Mn, 24.50-52.25µgg-1Pb and 18.45-28.33µgg-1Ni while heavy metal concentrations in Ile-Ife ranged from 15.45-27.53µgg-1Cd, 70.03-153.45µgg-1Mn, 20.00-27.98µgg-1Ni and 20.28-32.75µgg-1Pb.The order of decreasing bioavailability of detected heavy metals in sediment fractions from Osogbo was determined as follows: carbonate-bound>exchangable> Fe-Mn oxide>residual>organic matter. The order of decreasing bioavailability of detected heavy metals in sediment fractions from Ile-Ife was determined as follows: carbonate-bound>organic matter> Fe-Mn oxide>residual>exchangeable.The bioavailability percentage of free metal ions and organic-bound metal fractions in Osogbo were as follows: 46.42% Pb, 30.70%Cd, 32.96%Mn, 36.00%Ni; 33.00%Pb, 36.00%Cd, 35.00%Mn, and 31.58%Ni and the bioavailability percentage of free metal ions and organic-bound metal fractions in Ile-Ife were as follow: 35.71%Pb, 26.92%Cd 36.31%Mn,36.00%Ni; 33.00%Pb, 32.00%Cd, 36.73%Mn and 31.58%Ni respectively. Results indicate that the runoff sediments in Osogbo were primarily polluted with Pb and Cd and that Ile-Ife runoff sediments were primarily polluted with Cd. The runoff water samples from the two towns were contaminated with varying concentrations of the analysed heavy metals, though concentrations were all determined to be less than the permissible limits of metals in drinking water.

Keywords: Chemical Fractionation; Heavy Metals; Sediment; Runoff


Authors: Martin Kaltenbach; Christian Maschke; Franziska He?; Hildegard Niemann; Martin Führ

Abstract: The article reviews the results of scientific research on aircraft noise induced health impairments, annoyance as well as learning disorders and summarizes consequences for legislative and political decisions. The association of noise with an increased incidence of chronic arterial hypertension has been shown in large-scale epidemiological studies. Identified risks are up to 20% per 10 dB increase in day-evening-night level (above 50 dB(A)) and for nightly noise exposure within a range of 19-34% per 10 dB (above 30-35dB(A)). Identified risks regarding the use of antihypertensive drugs are partly higher. Also an increase in strokes is documented in recent epidemiological studies and understood as a consequence of hypertension. The same applies in the case of heart failure. Likewise an increase in myocardial infarctions has been confirmed in the recent studies with large populations included. Moreover, the annoyance due to aircraft noise has been significantly underestimated in the last 15 years. Compared to the EU-position paper of 2002 the sound level at a given extent of annoyance (25% HA) is at least 10 dB(A) lower. Impairments of cognitive performance in children attending schools exposed to high aircraft noise have been demonstrated in national and international studies up to the year 2014. As consequence of the present knowledge in noise effect research legal and political decisions must form the base to reduce aircraft noise exposure during the 24h-day to Lden = 50 and during the night to Ln = 45 dB(A).

Keywords: Noise Research; Hypertension; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Health Impairments; Annoyance; Learning Disorders


Authors: Marco Tulio Jaramillo Salazar; Néstor Jaime Aguirre Ramírez; Jhon Henry Galvis García

Abstract: The present study investigated the existence of a relationship between Extracellular Enzyme Activity (EEA) of glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase and pollution by carbon and phosphorous at five stations on the Chinchiná River in the water main and the biofilm (epilithon/episammon) during three seasons (rainy, dry and transition). Specific substrates were used as sources: 4-Nitrophenyl-β-D-Glucopyranose as a carbon source and 4-Nitrophenylphosphate as a phosphorus source. The product of catalysis (4-nitrophenol) was detected spectrophotometrically at an emission of 405nm. The ratio of EEA to temperature and pH was also determined. All sampling stations displayed EEA; however, reported results were higher for phosphatase, specifically in the biofilm, in all seasons; this indicates that certain associated microorganisms in this matrix can act as a multi-enzyme system which allows for easy disposal of substrate and the presence of catalysis. A relationship could not be established to describe EEA in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), because EEA was not detected in water samples from all stations during the three sampling seasons (E1, E2 and E4), because the bioavailability of nutrients attributed to the discharge of domestic wastewater from the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaría. Additionally, the complexity of the links between the monosaccharides which comprise polymers affects the degradation rate of the material, since the enzymes produced by microorganisms in the water prefer to hydrolyze specific regions (regiospecific) of the molecule. Enzyme activity can be affected by the structure of the polysaccharide being degraded. Therefore, some trends, such as those which occur at lower DOC concentrations, exhibit greater EEA. During the dry season, a correlation was found between phosphatase and glucosidase EEA in samples of water related to the concentration of orthophosphates and filtered COD, respectively. This indicates that higher concentrations of orthophosphates result in higher EEA of the phosphatase, and that higher concentrations of CODs result in higher EEA of the glucosidase.

Keywords: Alkaline Phosphatase; Extracellular Enzyme Activity; Epilithon; Glucosidase; Nitrophenol; Chinchiná River


Authors: Mohammad Asaduddin Laskar; Syed Kashif Ali; Sana Siddiqui

Abstract: Foods and oil industries, including laboratories of traditional medicines, generate a considerable amount of waste, such as spent/used cumin seeds (binomially named Cuminum cyminum). The idea of using this waste for the removal of toxic metals serves a dual purpose of waste valorization as well as remediation of waste water. The preliminary work includes the optimization of the experimental parameters, namely, pH, contact time, adsorbent and metal concentrations and temperature. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy was employed for examining the probable sites, available on the adsorbent, for interacting with the metal ions. The studied isothermal models, namely the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models, collectively suggest physio-chemical sorption as the primary mode of retention of metal ions. The spontaneous nature of adsorption is indicated by the calculated thermodynamic parameters. The adsorption process was found to follow the pseudo-first order kinetic model and also followed the intraparticle diffusion up to 50 minutes of contact time. The recovered adsorbent was then subjected to several cycles of loading and elution and was found to retain 97% of the sorption capacity up to 3 cycles.

Keywords: Low Cost Adsorbent; Agricultural By-Products; Isotherm Models; Waste Valorization; Environmental Protection


Authors: Simeneh Demissie Walie; Getachew Fisseha

Abstract: The present study was carried out in the Wyebla watershed Goncha Siso Enesie Woreda, Northwestern Ethiopia. Similar to the other highland areas in the country, the Wyebla watershed is characterized by severe soil erosion and acute water scarcity problems. Hence, the objective of the current investigation was to evaluate different land use types, and physical soil and water conservation (SWC) practices in Wyebla Watershed, Northwest Ethiopia. To check whether the current land use types match with treatment-oriented capability classification (TOCC), a transect walk was conducted and measurements were taken during a field survey. Fitness ratings of recommended versus existing physical SWC structures were given based on a TOCC scheme. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation. From results of the TOCC scheme, it can be seen that current land use practices match with recommended land use types at 83.33% on average. However, with regard to rating fitness of existing SWC practices, only 36.8% match the recommended SWC measures.

Keywords: Land Use Types; TOCC; SWC; Wyebla Watershed


Authors: E. Dartey; K. Sarpong; I. Owusu-Mensah

Abstract: In this study, the association between measurements of soil Pb (SL) levels and previously determined blood Pb (BL) exposure responses was investigated in battery repair workers from 25 different workshops in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana. A curvilinear relationship was established between the SL and BL data recorded. The mathematical model of pooled BL data sets for battery repair workers in the Kumasi Metropolis is: BL = 252.1 e0.0003608SL [with 95% confidence bounds for the coefficients a = 252.1 (200.2, 304), b = 0.0003608 (0.0002607, 0.0004608), R2 = 0.6622, adjusted R2 = 0.6475]. The correlation coefficient between the modelled BL and observed BL was 0.833457 with p < 0.001. The results show that the higher the SL level at the workshop, the greater the exposure and, hence, the higher the BL level of the workers. The mean SL level, 1284.48 mg/Kg and BL level, 420.96 µg/L recorded for the workshops studied were 3.21 and 1.40 times higher than ACGIH and USEPA permissible level for SL and BL, respectively.

Keywords: Battery Repair; Permissible Level; Blood Pb; Soil Pb


Authors: Gilbert C. Sigua; Arnel Celestino; Annie Melinda Paz-Alberto; Kenneth C. Stone; Ronaldo T. Alberto

Abstract: Landfills have led to some of the most intense battles over pollution that has ever been seen. With the population skyrocketing worldwide, these landfills will only become more of a public issue as time goes on. Heavy metals from several sources especially in landfills are an increasingly urgent problem because of its contribution to environmental deterioration and intensive degradation of soil microbial biodiversity. Despite the arguments over landfills in general, few or no effort was undertaken to clean up contamination of heavy metals in abandoned landfills. In our study new methods were proposed using a green technology or phytoremediation with ferrous sulfate in enhancing cleanup of heavy metal polluted landfill soils. Composite soil samples were collected near an open abandoned dump site in Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Three rates of sulfur: 0, 40 and 80 mmol kg-1 as ferrous sulfate (26% S) was thoroughly mixed with the soil. Four healthy seedlings of mustard (Brassica juncea, L) were transplanted to each pot. Soil pH showed a decreasing trend for soils treated with 0 and 80 mmol kg-1 of sulfur (S) after 15 days (8.12 to 7.38) and after 25 days (8.56 to 7.78). Application of ferrous sulfate significantly enhanced microbial activities in contaminated soils. Average respiration rate in soil with 0 mmol kg-1 S was about 2.0 mg kg-1 CO2-C compared with 19.0 mg kg-1 CO2-C for soils amended with 80 mmol S kg-1. Although dry matter yield and uptake of heavy metals by mustard were somewhat variable with S application, solubility of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) in soils was significantly (p≤0.001) increased with S application. Our study has demonstrated the beneficial outcome of green technology in combination with ferrous sulfate in cleaning up heavy metals contamination in landfills and at the same time improving soil microbial biomass following phytoremediation.

Keywords: Landfills; Heavy Metals; Mustard; Ferrous Sulfate; Phytoremediation; Solubility; pH


Authors: Simon R.E.; Ogubazghi G.; Ranganai R.T.; Ugwu N.U.

Abstract: Electrical resistivity methods using the dipole – dipole array and Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) techniques were conducted at the Onibu-Eja active open Dumpsite, Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria in assessing groundwater pollution. Eight profiles and twenty four VES station measurements were carried out in the eastern and southern accessible area of the dumpsite. The VES data were quantitatively interpreted using the partial curve matching technique and 1-D inversions with WinResist software. The dipole-dipole data were inverted into 2-D resistivity images using the DIPPRO 4.0 software. Subsurface geologic layers delineated include the topsoil (20 to 998 Ωm and 0.4 to 1.0 m thickness), clay/weathered layer (63 to 333 Ωm and 1.2 to 7.6 m thickness), weathered basement (25 to 83 Ωm and 3.0 to 27.0 m thickness) and fractured/fresh basement (31 and 16213 Ωm). The results of the VES from the geosections suggest saturated weathered basement indicative of conductive material/leachate especially in traverse TR6 where resistivity less than 35 Ωm occurred. The aquifer has hydraulic conductivity (K) range 0.326 to 0.720 m/day indicating low conductivity. The transmissivity (T) values ranged between 1.47 m2/day and 17.40 m2/day, showing that the area has low to intermediate transmissivity capacity that can meet withdrawals for local water supply. The 2-D profiles distinctly delineated subsurface layers and contamination zones were also found within the aquifer units in the study area. These zones occurred at several traverses with resistivity values less than 31 Ωm and thickness variations from 5 m to 25 m. The leachate seeped to the bottom in vertical motion as seen at the eastern part of the dump site. This could be as a result of the relative permeability of the overburden, possible linear features and the downward sloping of the bedrock topography towards the dumpsite in that area. At the southern part of the dumpsite, the leachate is inferred to migrate laterally, which could imply that the neighboring rocks are relatively porous and permeable. This migration is considered slow because there was no trace of contamination 200 m away from the dumpsite.

Keywords: Electrical Resistivity; Dipole-dipole; Leachate; Hydraulic Conductivity; Transmissivity and Contamination Zone


Authors: Nnenesi A. Kgabi; Martha Uugwanga; Johanna Ithindi

Abstract: This study evaluates the atmospheric conditions and precipitation interactions in Namibia to provide the basis for monitoring and improving conditions relating to water storage, recharge, and quality, as well as preserving small quantities of available fresh water, and improving existing water resource augmentation programs. Atmospheric conditions including temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, atmospheric water-holding capacity, and aerosol load, morphology, and size distribution were determined for the Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Use (SASSCAL) weather/research stations situated in the Kuiseb, Cuvelai-Etosha and Okavango-Omatako Basin, in Namibia. Inferential statistical analysis of the atmospheric conditions, and historical meteorological and hydrological data yielded information on the occurrence (onset, intensity, and frequency) of precipitation in Namibia. The study also showed that the water-holding capacity of the Namibian atmosphere increased as the temperature increased; aerosol pollution close to Cuvelai and Kuiseb masked the ground and reduced moisture supply; thus, the Namibian warm climate increased risks of drought during non-rainy periods, and floods during rainy periods, but at different times and/or places.

Keywords: Precipitation; Meteorological Parameters; Aerosol Load; Aerosol Morphology; Total Suspended Particles; Atmospheric Water-holding Capacity


Authors: B C Anderson; Anamika S Paul

Abstract: Sorption experiments conducted for estimation of the phosphorus sorption capacity for the local gravel. The tests performed for two different concentrations of the influent phosphorus solution i.e. 4mg/L and 8 mg/L. Experimental results were then modeled using Langmuir and Freundlich equation. Batch isotherm studies show that the P sorption study follows the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm. Additionally, ultimate sorption capacities were calculated, and observed that the gravel medium has a sorption capacity in the range of 17mg/kg ~ 22 mg/kg of the gravel. The ultimate quantity estimated was more by using the Freundlich isotherm as compared to the Langmuir isotherm. Also, the sorption capacity was more in the case for the higher concentration effluent (8mg/L) than, the lower one (4mg/L). During the design phase of the wetland system, batch isotherm studies represent a useful criterion for practical considerations of the application of the media. Therefore, the information will enable to short-list materials for wetland or filter design.

Keywords: Phosphorus; Sorption; Limestone; Gravel; First Order Equation; Saturation; Freundlich; Langmuir


Authors: JiSung KIM; Il HONG; KyuHo KIM; WooRam KIM

Abstract: An ecotope is an environment where an ecological niche and habitat are combined. Ecotopes are the smallest habitat units that are homogeneously classifiable on maps. Since the diversity of classified ecotopes i closely related to biodiversity, analysing ecotope diversity should be useful for indirectly presuming ecological healthiness. In this study, ecotopes in the middle of the Mankyung River were classified by time period (1918~2014), and the changes of their diversity before and after the construction of dikes were analyzed. Based on this analysis, the ecological healthiness of the environments of the Mankyung River was evaluated. The results of this study show that, after the construction of dikes in 1948, riverside lands formed intensive ecological environments, but the ecotope diversity index of protected lowlands declined sharply due to the artificial development of roads, farmlands, houses, and rural villages.

Keywords: Ecotope; Diversity; Stream Environment; Habitat; Aerialphoto


Authors: Sandra Milena Muñoz; Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda; Sandro Javier Bolaños Castro

Abstract: This project aims to evaluate the efficiency of the modified aerobic biological reactor FLOCAIRFP for the removal of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the water from the Quebrada Padre Jesus. This Quebrada receives discharge from domestic and livestock wastewater from human settlements located at its top. Two parallel reactors, with the first anoxic tank volume of 15% and the second with 10% anoxic volume, were worked. In reactors for continuous aeration and plastic filling where fixing bacteria remained, treatment flow was 0.1 ℓ / min for each. The operation during the stabilization phase reactors indicated that the removal of BOD5 in the reactors was only possible in 50% of study time, whereas nitrogen removal efficiencies were favorable in 55% of study time and biological phosphorus removal was favorable in 40% of the evaluated time.

Keywords: Organic Matter; Nitrification; Denitrification; Biological Phosphorus Removal


Authors: Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda; Sandro Javier Bolaños Castro; César Augusto García Ubaque

Abstract: This paper considers the abstraction of a parametric model of environmental planning in a watershed (expressed in processes, complex patterns, and UML diagrams), as an element for decision-making using tools ORs, which facilitates the model and implements an environmental planning water. This management strategy set during the planning of water resources, represented in ArchiMate, offers a model of integrated metric parameters and elements for proper planning that make up the actors in a watershed.

Keywords: Software Engineering; Environmental Planning; Treatment Plants; Municipal Wastewater; Life Cycle Analysis


Authors: Hossein Asadi

Abstract: The Anzali Wetland, located on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, is internationally known as a habitat of migratory birds. This is an important area as a spawning and nursery ground for fish, and as a breeding and wintering area for a wide variety of waterfowl. Environmental conditions in the Anzali Wetland have been degraded due to the increased inflow of sewerage, wastewater, and solid waste from industry, agriculture and urban areas. There is also an inflow of sediment from the upper stream mountainous area. This study aims to measure and estimate the total annual OC and phosphorous delivered from Pasikhan River into the Wetland. The estimation of sediment delivery to the Anzali Wetland was updated based on the suspended load measurements in sedimentological stations for nine major entering rivers. Total sediment load was estimated at 683.5 × 103 ton y-1; this shows a significant increase from previous estimations. This indicates that soil erosion is an important problem in the Anzali watershed. Water sampling was performed at Pasikhan River’s Nokhaleh Hydrometric Station, since Pasikhan is considered the most important river entering the Anzali Wetland during one year. The samples were analyzed for phosphorous fractions and organic carbon content of suspended sediment. P concentration and OC showed monthly changes. Both were high in wet months (September to March) and lower in dry months. This pattern also emphasizes the importance of soil erosion on the conditions of the Anzali Wetland. Total OC and P load from Pasikhan River into the Wetland were estimated to be 2710 ton y-1 and 245 ton y-1, respectively.

Keywords: Eutrophication; Particulate Phosphorous; Soil Erosion; Suspended Sediment


Authors: Z. Fuat TOPRAK

Abstract: Due to its serious impact upon the environment and on almost all aspects of life, climate change is internationally discussed among all vital sectors of life. In this study, global climate change is explained with the perspective of the people who have no prejudices, but live it. Therefore, it is possible to extract the answers of 5 questions that are frequently asked on global climate change that people are concerned with in their answers. For the goal, herein first, the previous research performed on “global climate change” has been abstracted and discussed briefly. Finally, in the light of the current literature, the study is concluded in 15 questions.

Keywords: Global Warming; Global Climate Change; Climate Change; Greenhouse Gases


Authors: Solanyi Castañeda Torres; Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda; Cesar Augusto García Ubaque

Abstract: This paper presents a review of the use of organic solid waste models in the years 2010-2014 with the support matrix for the identification of technical and economic models’ variables. Similarly, an optimization methodology is identified through the use of a mathematical linear programming approach as a tool for decision-making scenarios of waste management and energy systems.

Keywords: Optimization Model; Linear Programming; Aerobic Composting; Anaerobic Digestion; Vermiculture; Biofertilizers