Volume 7 Issue 1
Authors: Rubén Alberto Agudelo García; Lina Claudia Giraldo Buitrago
Abstract: This article evaluates and analyzes water quality of 21 streams tributaries of Medellin-Aburrá river, with the information obtained since 2004 in the project entitled “Network for Monitoring Water Resource at Aburrá Medellin River Basin, RedRío” executed between environmental authority “Area Metropolitana del Valle de Aburrá” and Universidad de Antioquia. This evaluation was performed through several water quality indices and allowed identifying the water bodies requiring immediate recovery actions. Among the indices considered, the ICACOSU (qualitative index) formulated by IDEAM in 2009, was evaluated; this index is a tool used by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development to evaluate water resources in the entire country; it was then found that it is the least drastic tool. However, all indices showed a number of critical streams, but always including the following tributaries: La García and La Hueso. This latter stream is of special importance since different actions of the Wastewater Discharge Sanitation and Handling Plan have already been implemented. Finally, it should be noted that the application of each index will depend on the objective pursued in the study, and that the quantitative index obtained from the information measured in the basin streams is a good tool to make specific decisions on these water streams, since the biological component is involved and water bodies of the region with minor intervention are taken as a reference.
Keywords: Water Quality; Streams; Aburrá-Medellin River; Indices
Authors: Heekwan Lee; Indira Parajuli
Abstract: The integrated management of medium (both water and air) based pollutants is vital at current as the management and legalization of individual pollutant is very difficult. Various environmental aspects associated with the different medium during the production processes are major challenges being faced in the environmental management of industrial facilities. It is of vital concern today to find the scientific way of integration of medium-based pollutants. Based on an amount and kind of medium-based pollutants, Integrated Environmental Performance Score (IEPS) is calculated applying Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI). The potential impacts of individual pollutants have been modelled for water based pollutants viz., Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Phosphorous (TP), and Total Nitrogen (TN) and air pollutants viz., Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Oxides of Sulphur (SOx) and Particles Matter (PM10). A kilogram of individual pollutants is taken in modelling to compute the individual impact categories of unit pollutants. The EPS penalty of TN is obtained as highest score of 189.70 i.e. 90.82% shares among six pollutants. The total penalty score for TP, PM10, TN, NOx and SOx, is derived as 13.53 (6.48%), 2.59 (1.24%), 1.30 (0.62%), 1.30 (0.62%) and 0.44 (0.21%), respectively. Hence, it is necessary to integrate effects of pollutants as per the scientific and justified impact caused by individual pollutants derived from the industrial facilities. Therefore, this study recommends for the compliance of EPS penalty of the pollutants based on a result of TRACI. This helps to enforce a scientific and justified polluters’ pay principle.
Keywords: Integrated Environmental Performance Score; TRACI; Medium-based Pollutants; Total Penalty Score; Industrial Facilities
Authors: Avraham Dody; Rose Shillito; Amir Givati; Ayal Siegel; Udi Galili; Omer Eisenberg
Abstract: Yamin Plain as the host of the national radioactive waste disposal in near surface repositories is very sensitive to erosion during flood events. To estimate the runoff and erosion Kineros2 model was used. For the period of 2012-2015, twelve related rainfall and runoff events were recorded from a centrally-located recording rain gage and separate runoff station at the outlet of the Nahal Yamin watershed, located in the northeast of the Negev Desert, Israel. Four of the storms, associated with mid-latitude cyclones were analysed due to the assumed relatively homogeneous distribution of rain. Three runoff parameters-peak discharge, time to peak and runoff volume were used to compare the computed with the measured hydrograph. In two events the fit was 2.16 and 3.67 for Root Mean Square Errors of 0.48 and -0.54 for Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients. The erosion rate calculated by the model of a few millimetres per event were in the same of order of magnitude as found by different techniques. In this limited application, the Kineros2 model provided valuable insight into the hydrological functioning of a critical arid watershed.
Keywords: Kineros; Hydrograph; Hydraulic Conductivity; Arid Zone; Erosion Rate
Authors: Tadashi Hibino; Hiroki Takata; Satoshi Yamaji; Narong Touch
Abstract: Sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC), an electrochemistry technology, is expected to be an alternative method for improving both water and sediment environments. This study presents the development of a solar cell-combined SMFC system (SC-SMFC), and the improvement of sediment and water environments by SC-SMFC through laboratory experiments. The distributions of pH and redox potential (ORP) in sediment were formed, in which larger decreases in pH and increases in ORP were found near the anode after the SC-SMFC application. From the pH and ORP distributions, the sediment located between 0 mm and 150 mm from the anode was strongly influenced by the SC-SMFC application, which was around 2-fold higher than that influenced by the application of SMFC alone. Interestingly, the system application caused the dissociation of calcium and iron complexes. This dissociation increased the concentrations of calcium and ferric ions, leading to the fixation of phosphate in the sediment. Furthermore, different decomposition characteristics of organic matter were found in the sediments near and far from the anode. In addition, the quality of overlying water was also improved by the system application. For example, the dissolved oxygen concentration remained higher near the sediment surface. These findings validate the usefulness of SC-SMFC as an alternative method for improving both sediment and water environments concurrently.
Keywords: Solar Cell; Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell; Sediment Quality; Water Quality; Phosphate Fixation
Authors: Yury Kamenir
Abstract: Our aim was to analyse size structure typical patterns of phytoplankton and mechanisms explaining such pattern generation and persistence. Long-time study of the size structure of integral phytoplankton and their main phyla was carried out in considerably different aquatic ecosystems. Several types of statistical distributions and quantitative indices of the pattern similarity were applied to find reliable patterns suitable for ecological forecast. Even with apparently unsystematic shifts in the taxonomic composition, the emergence and long-time restoration of extremely analogous spreading patterns of the integral phytoplankton and their main taxonomic parts were ascertained. The biodiversity histogram (FTSS) pattern steadiness was found for integral phytoplankton assemblages. Specific changes in the FTSS fine structure of some phytoplankton phyla were evident. Several phyla were remarkably susceptible to environmental changes. Such phyla can serve for diagnostics. Long-tailed asymmetric histograms were established as enduring traits elucidated by a multi-stressor mechanism of aquatic assemblage self-maintenance. Consistent patterns and quantitative similarity indices can characterize integral assemblage stability. Such patterns can be applied to develop mathematical models elucidating multi-stress proliferation in hierarchical structures of aquatic assemblages. Consistent structural patterns of large-scale aquatic assemblages can help in ecological modelling, aquatic management, and forecast.
Keywords: Aquatic Communities; Biodiversity Distribution; Ecosystem Restoration; Monitoring; Multidisciplinary Studies; Multi-stress System; Phytoplankton; Similarity; Size Spectra; Typical Pattern