Volume 1 Issue 1
Authors: C. L. Nongpiur; D. F. Diengdoh; E. R. Dkhar; R. Decruse; P. Baruah; D. G. Marbaniang
Abstract: Tea contain several essential nutrients, drinking of tea is considered beneficial for the human health. The presence of metals in trace concentration in tea has received special attention because they are directly related to health. A study was conducted in some black tea brands and their infusion, sampled from Shillong, the capital city of the state of Meghalaya, India to determine the concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in (Camellia sinensis). The study revealed that the mean concentration of Cr in both tea leaves and tea infusion was 0.4 ± 0.2 μgg-1 and 0.2 ± 0.2 μg/150ml respectively, of Mn was 129.5 ± 14.0 μgg-1 and 333.0 ± 44.4 μg/150ml respectively, of Fe was 128.0 ± 7.6 μgg-1 and 65.9 ± 31.0 μg/150ml respectively, of Co was 1.3 ± 0.02 μgg-1 and 1.9 ± 0.3 μg/150ml respectively, of Ni was 1.7 ± 0.7 μgg-1 and 3.2 ± 1.7 μg/150ml respectively, of Cu was 9.0 ± 1.3 μgg-1 and 11.1 ± 2.6 μg/150ml respectively, of Zn was 12.2 ± 2.2 μgg-1 and 16.1 ± 2.4 μg/150ml respectively and of Cd was 0.4 ± 0.1 μgg-1 Keywords -black tea; daily; infusion; intake; metals; toxicity and 0.4 ± 0.1 μg/150ml respectively. Calculation of percentage release was performed, and it was observed that Mn and Ni extractable percentage varies from 30% to 55% whereas the percentages of all the other metals were less than 30%. Daily intake of metals through tea drinking pathway was analyzed and it was seen that the metal intake was less than the acceptable and recommended daily intake of metals.
Keywords: black tea; daily; infusion; intake; metals; toxicity
Authors: E.M. SHEMANG; M.P. SAME; K. MICKUS
Abstract: A geophysical investigation using electromagnetics (EM), electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar was carried out on the abandoned Gaborone landfill that was decommissioned in 1992 after being active for ten years. The aim of the study was to map the physical boundaries of the decommissioned landfill, map the distribution of waste and identify zones of leachate within and below the landfill. The results of EM conductivity measurements show a wide distribution of conductive materials, which represents a zone of active leaching which is mostly concentrated in the centre of the landfill. In-phase EM measurements also identified zones occupied by metallic waste that are less distributed over the landfill. Results of the resistivity survey indicated a three layer resistivity structure within and surrounding the landfill. The top layer is a more resistive cover material (68 - 127 ohm-m) and varies in thickness from over the landfill. The second layer is a low resistivity zone (3-40 ohm-m) and indicates a zone of high leachate activities. At the bottom is a more resistive layer (greater than 500 ohm-m) which is likely bedrock that underlies the abandoned landfill. The ground penetrating radar images also indicated a three layer structure over the landfill which is similar to the resistivity results. All the methods implied that the leachate has not penetrated the bedrock but the large amount of leachate suggests that it may leak into the unlined landfill in the future despite being in an arid environment. Of the three methods, the resistivity survey provided the most complete information on the subsurface conditions of and beneath the landfill.
Keywords: electromagnetics; electrical resistivity; ground penetrating radar; landfill; Botswana
Authors: R. K. Mishra; S.M. Marale
Abstract: In supersession of Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) 1991, with a view to ensure livelihood security to the fisher and other communities living in coastal areas, to conserve and protect coastal stretches the Government of India imposed CRZ notification 2011. The areas such as mangroves, corals, mudflats, national marine parks, salt marshes, turtle nesting grounds, horse shoe crab habitats, sea grass beds, nesting grounds of birds, and archeology and heritage sites were considered as an ecologically sensitive area (ESA) where setting and expansion of industries, operations or processes are restricted. This article aims to critically observe the status of coastal habitats in the light of coastal threats such as habitat loss, coastal pollution and nutrient load, climate change, overexploitation and invasive alien species. Some remedial measures and recommendations for conservation of coastal habitats including strengthening CRZ rules were suggested.
Keywords: Coastal Habitats; Coastal Regulation Zone; Management; India; Livelihood
Authors: Igor Kantardgi; Long Giang Tran
Abstract: Some of failure have been occurred during stage of construction of the sea port due to calculation of the wave load in the period of construction is not given enough attention such as in the period of operation, Therefore, in this article, the wave loads on the reflecting wall of the sea port mole at the various stages of construction has been studied by numerical and experimental methods. The authors have been calculated a specific project with a mathematical model using input data in the field measurements, calculations show that this mathematical model is possible to use in practice to determine the maximum total wave force impacted on the sea port mole.
Keywords: Port mole wall; wave load; steel sheet-pile wall
Authors: B.B. Kaliwal; S.B. Hulyal
Abstract: Almatti reservoir is one of the major perennial water resource located at about 63 km away from Bijapur is mainly used for drinking and irrigation. Monthly and seasonal variations of physico-chemical characteristics were studied from February, 2003 to January 2005 to study the various ecological parameters such as rainfall, humidity, air and water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate, bicarbonate, total dissolved solids. The study revealed that there exists seasonal fluctuations of the factor and from data it was also apparent that various correlations between the factors could be seen. However, it is obvious that the absence of significant difference between sampling stations for all these parameters in the Almatti reservoir indicated fairly homogeneous conditions and the water quality is also found to be homogeneous. Study also indicated that the water is quite suitable for irrigation and pisciculture.
Keywords: fresh water reservoir; Seasonal variations; Physico-chemical parameters; Almatti reservoir
Authors: Andreas Tsatsaris; George Miliaresis
Abstract: Monthly night averaged land surface temperature (LST) imagery is analyzed throughout a year-period (2008), in an attempt to capture the seasonal variability of LST, and parametrically represent and classify the African Countries. Segmentation outlined in an objective way the temporal variation of LST during the 2008, grouped in 9 zones with distinct spatial distribution, each one presenting a distinct annual variation of monthly LST. Tuberculosis incidence per county for the year 2008 was correlated to the percentage areal occurrence of the 9 biophysical zones. More specifically statistical analysis indicates that there is an increase of TB-IR per country if the percent occurrence of either zone 4 or zone 6 is increased. Such evidence was already known, but it is the first time that this correlation was quantified on the basis of high resolution LST data comparable to the previous studies that were based on the very sparse meteorological stations network. The MODIS multi-temporal LST data can assist the modeling of the disease risk and disease spatial distribution as well as environmental modeling, climatic change studies at moderate resolution/country level scale.
Keywords: Tuberculosis; environmental health; geographical information systems; land surface temperature; MODIS
Authors: Zefi Dimadama
Abstract: Black Sea countries with an invaluable natural heritage are fragile to be threatened by numerous environmental challenges. The divergent, yet developing, economies of the region, the fragmented sectoral policies that are not compatible to environmental sustainability and the hierarchical government systems that lack of transparency and participation have concluded to the environmental degradation of the area. The need for new cooperative initiatives towards “greening” the Black Sea, through environmental and sustainable development policies, is emergent. This strategic policy implies the incorporation of the horizontal environmental perspective into all sectoral policies, with a view to achieve legal compliance, efficiency, legitimacy and regional cooperation.
Keywords: Black Sea area; sustainable development; environmental threats; greening sectoral policies; environmental integration; regional cooperation