Volume 2 Issue 1
Authors: Hasim Altan; Shenghan Li
Abstract: Energy consumption and CO2 emissions of building materials are examples of the perhaps most basic problems in construction sector for the built-environment. In this paper life cycle assessment (LCA) method is applied to the analysis of building structures (reinforced concrete structure, steel structure and wood structure) in Taiwan. This paper first discusses environmental burdens of reinforced concrete structure, wood structure and steel structure in Taiwan from cradle to gate perspectives. Secondly, material recovery strategy is adopted for analysing the balance of environmental impacts of structures in terms of embodied energy consumption and embodied CO2 emissions. The influential factors for assessing quantitative results include material extraction, manufacturing process, transportation and recovery phase. The outcomes show that wood structure has highly environmentally friendly potential than that reinforced concrete and steel structures from cradle to gate perspectives and, further, if recovery strategy is taken, wood structure still has the lowest environmental impacts in Taiwan.
Keywords: Life Cycle; Embodied Energy; Embodied CO2; Material Recovery, Wood Structure
Authors: Mahajan D. M.; Marale S. M.; S. Rao K. R.; Gavali R.
Abstract: Water pollution due to residents and pilgrims causing waterborne health related diseases especially AGI (Acute Gastro Enteritis) amongst local population. The river water monitoring was carried and a questioner based survey was used to estimate water-borne and enteric disease incidence amongst the local residents and floating population consisting of pilgrims, tourists etc. 1.75% of local population suffered AGI at Alandi and 1.53% local population suffered due to AGI at Dehu. Various health disorders such as skin itching, ear pain, throat irritation, nausea etc were reported in the pilgrims. Multi-criteria approach is used to evolve composite quality index (CQI). The impact due to occurrence of AGI for various factors calculated using a parameter called as Odd Ratio (OR). It is observed that the odd ratio (OR) has decreased by 28% and 32% in Dehu and by 49% and 63% at Alandi during pilgrimage periods of Ashadi and Kartiki respectively, thereby indicating increased trend of number of people suffering from AGI due to pilgrim activities during pilgrimage period in comparison to non pilgrimage period.
Keywords: Sewage pollution; Pilgrimage activities; Composite Quality Index; Odd Ratio; Skin diseases; Solid Waste
Authors: Jose Luis Alberdi; Walter Darío Di Marzio; María Elena Sáenz
Abstract: Commercial formulation of pyrethroid insecticide Cypermethrin used in soybean crops was very toxic to four freshwater algae studied causing harmful effects on algal growth and antioxidative defense system level. Recovery from exposure would be seriously affected since Cypermethrin commercial formulation caused algicidal effects. Antioxidant enzymes were significantly stimulated at concentration below LOEC values derived from algal growth inhibition test. The activation of antioxidant enzymes could be used as sensitive biomarkers for early warning of the action of pyrethroid insecticides. This concentration was below measured field concentration of Cypermethrin (0.092 mg Cyp/L) in a stream from a soybean crop area, indicating enzymatic biomarkers could anticipate adverse actions on recovery. Concentrations of commercial formulation which caused algistatic effects on P. subcapitata produced an inhibition of CAT and GR activity, showing oxidative stress damage. The use of insecticides in large areas for growing soybeans is discussed, as toxicity to green algae of formulated Cypermethrin is higher than the others two widely used insecticides, Endosulfan and Chlorpyrifos.
Keywords: Cypermethrin; green algae; algistatic; algicidal; biomakers; soybean crops
Authors: Marale S. M.
Abstract: Environmental problems in developing countries are different than that of developed countries. Similarly scientific and technical tools developed and widely utilized in developed countries may not be effective in developing countries. It is very essential to understand social and historical context in which environmental movement is working in these places. Present paper highlights current environmental and human relation problems in India. How these problems differ from developed countries and the practical solution to solve these problems are discussed. An essential framework with some most relevant indicators which can be pursued in the environmental research are presented. Some important tools like environmental education, environmental management and spiritual education suggested for the betterment of human and environmental wellbeing of the developing nations like India.
Keywords: Developing Countries; Environmental Crisis; Interpersonal relations; Resolution
Authors: L. Gortzis; S. Zimeras; Ch. Pylarinou
Abstract: The task of medical diagnosis is a complex one, considering the level vagueness and uncertainty management, especially when the disease has multiple symptoms. The management of effective diagnosis depends on factors dealing with heart attack incidents and pre-hospital service of the patient. Although heart attack has no strict medical definition it is commonly used to indicate a sudden and potentially life threatening abnormality of heart function. Important factor in a heart attack incident (with severe results sometimes) is the efficient handling of the time especially on the interval time management starting from the moment the incident is recognized up to the time the patient is in the emergency unit. Time management of the incident could be achieved by controlling the time constraints proposing a methodology where the pre-hospital service is treated as a process consisted by three stages. Best solutions of the time constrains could be calculated considering constraint optimization techniques. A case study of five of heart attack reported incidents is analyzed and the results indicate the possible contribution of the application of this methodology. This methodology appears to be very useful, thanks to its ability not only to generate an effective initial schedule as an additional guidance to all participants involved in heart attack service, but also to respond to changes occurred once the first actions have started and abrupt complications necessitate additional or updated actions.
Keywords: pre-hospital service; constraint optimization; process scheduling; heart attack