Volume 1 Issue 3
Authors: Nur Aliaa Shafie; Isahak Mohd; Nuraainaa Roslan; Hafizan Juahir; Mohd Fahmi Mohd Nasir; Norlafifah Ramli
Abstract: The manuscript describes the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the series modeling of surface water quality prediction in Juru River, Malaysia. This is based on water quality data from twelve monitoring stations of Juru River (6 January 2003 until 5 November 2007) provided by Department of Environment (DOE), Malaysia. Thirty physicochemical parameters were involved in this analysis as input variables and water quality index as output variable. Three models were proposed to identify the most effective model in attempt to predict the WQI. Sensitivity analysis (SA) was carried out by using leave one out approach in order to indentify the most significant input-output relationship. The ANNs developed was successfully trained and tested using the available data sets and the performance of ANNs models was determined by coefficient of determination (R2), coefficient of correlation (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). Results show that ANN-1 gives the higher value of R2 (0.9942) and RMSE (2.8966), however this model was only trained and tested using all available parameters. The second model (ANN-2) gives R2 value (0.9839) slightly higher compare to the third model, ANN-3 (0.9811). This is supported by the RMSE values which indicate that ANN-2 has a lower value compared to ANN-3 which is 2.1877 and 2.411. Hence, this study will trigger DOE to use ANNs in order to predict WQI other than using conventional method (WQI equation) that is currently being used by DOE. In addition, the ANNs managed to show remarkable prediction performance to predict the WQI in Juru River.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Sensitivity Analysis; Water Quality Index
Authors: S.A. Uzoekwe; A.C. Achudume
Abstract: The present study, evaluate pollution status and the physico-chemical characteristics of Ughoton stream water as it affects the quality of water and its impact on Ughoton stream ecosystem. Surface water samples were collected at various distances, 50,100, 250, 500m downstream from an oil well. The potentially toxic elements, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb were analyzed. Other parameters including cations, coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria and Total hydrocarbon were analyzed. The study reveals most of the parameters; pH, DO, BOD, and COD are within limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) for surface water. The heavy metal concentrations in the stream water are also below the threshold levels associated with the toxicological effects and the regulatory limits. However, the high concentration of nutrients, coliform and heterotrophic bacteria confirmed high pollution status. The coliform and heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from 96 to 520 and 48 to 284 per 100ml respectively. Pollution nature of Ughoton stream water is further confirmed by its oil films coated environment. The pollution load exceeded tolenrance limit of stream that empties into major river. Therefore, The Ughoton stream water is considered as a threat to Ughoton natural ecosystem.
Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters; coliform and heterotrophic bacteria; freshwater stream
Authors: C.V. ChalapatiRao; Animesh Kumar; Asha Chelani; Chanchal Chauhan; Sargam Mishra
Abstract: A statistical approach is used to study the impact of wind speed and direction on ambient RSPM concentration at three different urban sampling locations in Nagpur. Directional parameters play an important role in determining the RSPM levels in ambient air. The use of circular statistics in modeling the RSPM concentration using wind direction is suggested. The nonlinear model based on inverse relationship of RSPM concentration with wind speed and sine and cosine of wind direction is used to obtain one-step ahead forecast. The results are compared with benchmark persistence model.
Keywords: circular statistics; wind speed; wind direction; particulate matter; modeling
Authors: Kaneyuki NAKANE; Motomu KAWAMURA; Ling PI
Abstract: The effect of using a thin layer of greening material on temperatures and heat fluxes recorded on the roof of a single-story factory office in Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan, was investigated from May to November, 2006. In the study, the roof was divided into two sections. One area was a non-greening control area. The other area was a greening area, which consisted of a thin layer of soil with a bamboo charcoal sublayer spread over a plastic board. The temperature of the non-greening area was the higher of the two areas during the day in all seasons, especially in August when it was mostly around 60˚C, while the temperature of the greening area was maintained at below 35˚C, which helped control the temperature of the garret. Likewise, the heat fluxes from the non-greening rooftop area to the building during the day, and from the rooftop to the external environment at night were higher than that for the greening rooftop, which were reduced to less than 10%, even during summer. The monthly total heat fluxes suggest that the heat balance for the greening area during the day was negative (rooftop to external environment), and at night in August it was positive (rooftop to garret), which was contrary to the fluxes for the non-greening rooftop. Our novel greening system using bamboo charcoal and a plastic board effectively controlled the temperatures and reduced heat fluxes on the rooftop, and showed the potential to contribute greatly to regulating room temperatures.
Keywords: Bamboo charcoal; Heat island phenomena; Heat flux; Shallow-soil rooftop greening; Temperature
Authors: Alexander Kriz; Günter Tiess
Abstract: As the aggregates demand steadily increases, comprehensive legal frameworks as well as advanced technologies have to be established in order to provide a sustainable supply of mineral resources in the future. For the most precise determination of key factors within the aggregates supply-chain, a profound IT-based environment is crucial. The authors will discuss the actual state of affairs in Europe within the scope of this paper.
Keywords: aggregates; mining; mineral policy; economics; IT; system dynamics modelling; mineral resources
Authors: Song, Hung-Chi
Abstract: The existing residences constructed with additions have long been considered synonymous with disobeyed buildings1, and those with iron roof additions are often associated with slums. Yet in Taiwan, it is a secondary construction activity, a long-existing way of residence addition constructing aimed to meet people’s need for residency. This phenomenon of constructing residence additions highlights the fact that the space purchased from the housing market fails to fulfill citizen’s need for residential space, the government‘s power to control and forbid unlicensed constructions appears weak, and that unlicensed construction activity has become common in modern residential construction. In order to interpret the spatial construction of modern residential buildings in Taiwan and its social value, this paper reviews the literature related to the history of unlicensed construction in Taiwan in order to set up its correspondent system which is later analyzed by means of the research into the construction of unlicensed residence additions. Then, the Field Study is applied to the photography and recording of the types of unlicensed residence additions, and the effect of the residence addition types is developed through the Induction Method. The results of this study indicated: 1) There is a long history of residence additions. 2) Building cost speculations behind unlicensed buildings. 3) The complete paragenesis mechanism of residence addition building. 4) The two-stage construction process is one of the residence modes in Taiwan.
Keywords: residence additions; disobeyed spaces; typology; social-cultural significance
Authors: Md. Zelani Sarker; Ake Sivertun
Abstract: Flood is a type of hydro-meteorological phenomenon and it is very hazardous as it can cause devastating losses in property and human lives. Fast and unplanned development aggravates the consequences of flooding by increasing the monetary costs of losses. These kinds of losses are especially high in urban areas which would be possible to ease with proper planning and management of the urban structures. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) based modeling and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques can help by supplying maps and techniques as assistance to make early warning for risk areas. In this case study, different criteria have been analyzed that have potential impact on the amount of devastation, such as the elevation of the areas, flooding depth, building density, terrain slope, soil type, land use types etc. Based on different factors analysis, results are visualized with the help of GIS and RS presentation and dissemination techniques. In addition, the impacts of different factors on flooding itself are also discussed. Finally, a flood prediction map for Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) in Bangladesh was prepared using the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with particular focus on the different criteria that influence the flooding in Dhaka city.
Keywords: Dhaka City Corporation (DCC); Flood prediction mapping; Remote Sensing (RS); Geographical Information Systems (GIS); and Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
Authors: Tu?ba Ongun Sevindik; Kemal Çelik
Abstract: The mesotrophic Ikizcetepeler Reservoir was sampled monthly from February 2007 to June 2008 at three stations. Thermal stratification occurred in the reservoir from May to September. The results revealed high bands of chlorophyll in the epilimnion and metalimnion of the reservoir during summer and winter. Results suggest that high chlorophyll accumulation was a result of the increase in available light levels in spring and deep mixing, providing phytoplankton with the nutrients needed for grow in summer. Correlation analyses were used to determine the relationships between chlorophyll (μg/L), water temperature (oC), total nitrogen (mg/L), total phosphorus (mg/L) and Secchi disk depth (m). Differences in chlorophyll, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and in Secchi disk transparency were not significant among sampling stations (p>0.01), but they were significant among seasons (p<0.01). Successful control of eutrophication requires an understanding of how nutrients, physical conditions and biological processes interact to affect algal growth and since the utility of chlorophyll in estimating algal biomass world-wide, this study was conducted to determine how variations in water temperature, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and water transparency affected the the vertical and seasonal distribution of chlorophyll in Ikizcetepeler Reservoir.
Keywords: Ikizcetepeler Reservoir; phytoplankton biomass; total nitrogen; total phosphorus; water transparency
Authors: Regine Ortlepp
Abstract: The anchorage length needed for textile fabrics as reinforcement within a fine-grained concrete matrix was determined based upon specific filament yarn pull-out tests. The purpose of this research was to eliminate the possibility of failure due to fabric pull-out from the matrix in practical applications. Therefore, a new test set-up was developed, which offers the possibility for a quick and direct determination of the anchorage length. Several textile fabrics made of alkali resistant glass (AR-glass) fibres, as well as carbon fibres were therewith tested. Findings indicated that conventional AR-glass fabrics required large anchoring lengths, and, it’s another fact to consider, that carbon fibres have a substantially higher strength than AR-glass fibres and different bond behaviour. The research further showed that an additional application of a polymer suspension coating to textile fabrics greatly increased the reinforcement’s resistance to pull-out.
Keywords: textiles; anchorage; pull-out; restoration; repair
Authors: S. Naik; S. Mishra; S. M. Marale; R. K. Mishra
Abstract: The movement of Olive Ridley sea turtle in coastal region and their nesting behavior in India were studied with relation to oceanographic parameters during 2003 to 2007.The impact of oceanographic parameters including the potential environmental influences on the movements and nesting; we compared in west and east coast with remotely sensed variables including sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface current(SSC), surface chlorophyll concentration (Chl-a), sea surface height (SSH) and mixed layer depth (MLD). The movement at west and east coast observed, including the oceanic migration for pelagic and nesting mass that increased gradually from west coast to southward and then towards to northward directionwith mass nesting in east coast of Orissa. The movement results due to potential mean surface Chl-a concentration of 3 mg m-3 with threshold limitation of mean surface temperature at ≤ 25 0C at east coast of Orissa. Although the mean surface Chl-a and SST maintained in west coast there was distinctlyvariation in MLD, WSC with SSH characteristics. In contrast present study revealed the favorable oceanographic condition for mass nesting of Olive Ridleyat east coast of Orissa.However the anthropogenic impact has declined the nesting population in later during 2006 and 2007.
Keywords: Sea turtle; Olive Ridley; Oceanographic parameters; Moment; Nesting