Volume 2 Issue 6

Authors: Shadrack Mulei Kithiia

Abstract: This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in the years 1998-2005 within the Nairobi River basins on the effects and implications of sediment loads on water quality. The study was motivated by the worrying trends in water quality degradation within the basin to be enable indentify possible mitigation strategies for the river basin. Sediments from river water samples were obtained from the Ngong, Nairobi, and Mathare river sub-basins. The results indicated a seasonal variation/trend for suspended sediments in each basin, and a similar trend in water quality degradation. Annual suspended sediment load flux estimates for the Ngong, Nairobi, and Mathare rivers are 1700, 6300 and 3000 tonnes, respectively. A close relationship between certain water quality parameters, such as total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, turbidity and colour, to increased water quality degradation, on a seasonal basis was demonstrated. Land-use changes per basin, including agricultural, residential, industrial and urban, were used to identify the most dominant type of land-use activity and its impact on sediment loads and reduction in water quality. Water pollution and pollutant levels varied with season and distance away from the city of Nairobi in the three sub-basins. The streams were found to be less chemically polluted away from the city due to dilution effects and self purification during the wet season. The results indicated that sediment loads had a significant effect on the Nairobi River basin’s water in terms of water quality reduction. These appeared to significantly contribute to the pollution of the river and reduction in its water quality. This paper recommends the following water pollution control strategies, and hence reduce water quality reduction; removal of solid wastes from the river courses, protection of the river banks from construction activities, discourage people from dumping wastes into the river courses, relocation of the “Jua-Kali” garage and mechanics who operate near the river banks, as well as continuous monitoring to check on illegal dumping of wastes into the river as some of the Best Management Practices (BMPs) within the watershed, and the country in general.

Keywords: Variability; Quality; Management; Aquatic Ecosystems; Stream Restoration


Authors: Farag M. Malhat; Mohamed N. Haggag

Abstract: The concentrations of 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in 100 samples of cow's milk collected from five districts of El-Qalubiya Governorate, Egypt during March to April, 2011. Out of all the samples analyzed, 10 OCPs residues were detected. The most predominant organochlorine compounds in cows milk were p,p'-DDD (49%) and endrin (42%) with a mean value of 0.513±1.04 and 0.457±0.566ng/ml, respectively. Among HCH isomers, δ-HCH was only found in cow's milk samples. All samples were contaminated with one or more of the investigated pesticides. From the public health point of view, the observed levels of OCPs residues in cow's milk's in this study do not pose a serious health risk to consumers.

Keywords: Organochlorine Pesticides Residues; POPs; Milk; Contamination


Authors: A. Ramesh; B.S. Nagendra Prakash; P.V. Sivapullaiaih; A.S. Sadhashivaiah

Abstract: The study of underground contamination will be of immense help to researchers and environmental regulators to evolve and initiate mitigative measures. Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore, India is considered to be one of the oldest and largest industrial areas in south-east Asia. Studies have been carried out to identify the parameters of contamination and their distribution with the help of the existing bore wells which have been analyzed for 20 parameters. The major general contaminants found exceeding standards are hardness and nitrates; whereas, hexavalent chromium and lead are toxic elements found exceeding the drinking water limits in some bore wells. However, the bore wells containing the parameters exceeding the limits were found highly isolated spatially in the entire area except an isolated presence of chromium in one pocket, thus indicating that the situation is not serious and can be tackled by initiating measures to control local stretches. Combination of parameters exceeding limit varied from bore well to bore well.

Keywords: Contamination; Hardness; Nitrates; Heavy Metals


Authors: Nina Biland?i?; Marija Sedak; Branimir ?imi?; Maja ?oki?

Abstract: Concentrations of heavy metals Cd, Hg and Pb were studied in the kidney and muscle tissues of free-living wild boars from three regions of continental Croatia. Significant iinterregional differences in kidney and muscle for Cd and Pb concentrations were determined. On the other hand, all three studied regions had similar concentrations of Hg in muscle and kidney. Obtained Cd concentrations were higher than those found in other countries. However, Pb levels shown lower values in comparison to other studies. Toxic elements levels, especially Cd in kidney of wild boar, suggest a detailed investigation of physiological and environmental factors contributing to animal contamination and an intensified control of meat and elimination of organ from human nutrition.

Keywords: Metal Pollution; Cadmium; Lead; Mercury; Wild Boars; Croatia


Authors: Zainal Fatoni; Donald E. Stewart

Abstract: Sanitation is a critical, though often forgotten or neglected determinant for survival in the initial stages of a disaster or an emergency situation. Global stakeholders have developed guidelines and created minimum standards required for a disaster relief situation but unfortunately, the lessons learned from previous experience indicates a persistent range of problems, such as damaged sanitation systems, inadequate assessment mechanisms, inappropriate technology choices and the lack of health promoting behaviours. This paper addresses sanitation issues in the context of the 2010 Mt Merapi eruption in Indonesia and describes the specific characteristics of this natural disaster and the affected population. It reviews how the relevant stakeholders addressed problems and issues affecting sanitation. It identifies opportunities and challenges relevant to sanitation in emergency situations and proposes recommendations for appropriate practices in the future.

Keywords: Sanitation; Disaster; Emergencies; Mt Merapi; Indonesia


Authors: Bernadin ELEGBEDE; Patrick A. EDORH; Alain K. AISSI; Luc KOUMOLOU; Koffi KOUDOVO; Sabine MONTCHO; Michel BOKO; Patient GUEDENON; Christophe KAKI

Abstract: This survey made an assessment of bio markers witnesses of a chronic poisoning to the lead via the consumption of the drinking water whose contamination has been proved in the cotton zone of Kérou. Contents of lead measured out in samples of water of boreholes and out in blood plasma by atomic absorption spectrophotometer have been compared. To check the health impact of water pollution by pesticides and toxic metals, the present study conducted the collection of blood and urine of 39 residents, following the ethical rules. Kerou in Benin is a good reference of a site to test the hypothesis of the connection between water pollution with heavy metals (Pb in the present investigation) and human health and the intensity of farming activities and cotton cultivation in the zone. After laboratory analyses, the calculation of the Daily Exposure Dose (DED) showed high doses of toxic substances especially the lead in the plasma. These high values can be attributed to residues of pesticides. Results also show a lead level in blood interrelation in water for boreholes F3, F5 and F7. The blood lead limit has been passed in zones of the F12 boreholes, F16 and F18. Signs of poisoning to the lead are not marked at the level of the biochemical parameters but at the level of symptoms of lead poisoning have been observed within the investigated population of the residents. These results were confirmed by checking the poisoning of the body of consumers around the measurement of bio-markers such as urea, creatinin, transaminase, total cholesterol and urinary calcium of 39 individuals. It has been shown that chronic poisoning to lead via the consumption of drinking water occurred and bio markers witnesses were assessed.

Keywords: Cotton Culture; Boreholes Water; Blood Lead; Lead Poisoning