Volume 3 Issue 3
Authors: M. Eswaramoorthy; S. Shanmugam; AR. Veerappan
Abstract: The applications of solar dish and thermoelectric generator have the research potential as green and clean energy generation from solar thermal route. In this paper, an attempt has been made to conduct an experimental study on small scale solar parabolic dish thermoelectric generator. The solar parabolic dish collector is fabricated using an unused satellite dish antenna fitted with polished aluminum sheet as concentrator surface. Thermoelectric generator consists of commercial thermoelectric modules embedded between the receiver plate and water cooled heat sink which is placed on the focal plane of manual tracking parabolic dish collector. The concentrated solar radiation and water cooled heat sink is the driving potential to generate electricity, various operating parameters like receiver plate temperature, power output and conversion efficiency with respect to solar radiation are studied. It is found that the receiver plate temperature is significantly affecting the power output. Also, in this study it is identified to reuse the unused dish antenna for solar collector and coupled with commercial thermoelectric module is simple fabrication method easy to adopt in the rural techno craft for small scale power generator to meet the isolated energy demands.
Keywords: Solar Parabolic Dish Collector; Thermoelectric Generator; Power Output; Heat Sink
Authors: Brahim Idelhakkar
Abstract: The operation of the major industrialized economies is largely dependent on the availability of oil resources. Production and consumption sites of this raw material are often in total geographical disconnection. Oil shipping remains the least expensive mode of transportation. This activity is risky and complex. Risky”, since accidents are a source of environmental and economical damages; considerably important enough to obscure the rare nature of such disasters. Complex”, because there are many actors and intermediaries, often of different nationalities and are sometimes difficult to be identified. In the energy fields, the service provider company like the shipment of oil from exploration site to the market is often faced with signing a contract of marine insurance. Such an agreement yields to certain sensitive standards. Facing the risks of sea crossing of a highly risked energetic product as oil and its derivatives, the insurance contract is a very useful and often presents more difficulties that should be qualified. How is the environment integrated in our market economy? The traditional approach, consisting of regulating the most possible, has shown its inability to solve environmental problems. A new approach, which is more flexible and more efficient in combining regulatory and economic instruments, should lead to improve both economic and ecological results to fight against pollution.
Keywords: Risk; Tanker; Externality; Oil Pollution; Market Benefits; Environmental Regulation; Insurance
Authors: Mohammad Ameri; Farnaz Jazini Dorcheh
Abstract: The axial velocity and temperature distributions at the outlet section of inlet diffuser of Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) channel should be uniform as much as possible to avoid overheating of first rows of boiler heat exchangers tubes. Due to flow properties and angle of inlet diffuser, providing a uniform outlet velocity profile is impossible without using a correction device. A proposed design should be checked to satisfy the outlet velocity and temperature requirements. In current study, the abilities of computational fluid dynamics have been assessed to obtain the crucial profiles without the experimental difficulties. Regarding the special characteristics of flow and geometry, numerical solution may not be performed without taking some techniques into the CFD modeling. The actual HRSG inlet channel incorporates one perforated plate to correct the flow and three burner elements inside its wide-angle diffuser. Investigations have shown that the perforated plate and heat exchanger modules can be modeled by porous jump boundary condition and the burner elements by radiator faces respectively. Realizable k-ε with non-equilibrium wall function seems to be the most optimum turbulence model for solution of the problem.
Keywords: HRSG; Inlet Duct; Flow Correction; Diffuser; CFD
Authors: Stuart R.J. Walker
Abstract: The UK is an internationally important area for tidal energy, with half of the extractable European tidal resource estimated to be in UK territorial waters . Marine (wave and tidal) energy resources are said to have the potential to supply up to 20% of national electricity demand , and now is a critical time in the development of tidal energy, with a wide range of devices at the design and testing stage, some in the water, and a few generating meaningful amounts of electricity. The recent announcement of an increase in financial support for tidal devices is also a very positive development . Many people believe that the UK tidal energy industry is currently in a similar position to the wind energy industry in the mid-1980s, and lies at the bottom of a very steep and exciting development curve. Numerous companies have developed tidal energy machines, and the vast majority are designed to be operated in arrays, or “farms” of multiple devices, similar to those used in the on- and off-shore wind industry. No such tidal farms currently exist, although some are being developed . This paper discusses the challenges the UK tidal industry is expected to face during the design, building, installation and operation of an array of tidal devices rated at 100 MW. A meeting was held during the RenewableUK conference in October 2011 to discuss the future of the industry, and notes from this meeting were drawn on during the writing of this paper. The author would like to thank everyone who contributed to this event. The conclusion of this paper is that there are many challenges standing between the current position of the industry and deployment of a 100 MW array. It is very easy to focus, as is the case in mainstream media, on the development of the turbine devices themselves, however many of the challenges lie in other areas, such as installation, cabling and connection. Nonetheless, these challenges are not insurmountable, and by taking a holistic approach to the design of a tidal array and working together these challenges will be solved.
Keywords: Renewable Energy; Marine Energy; Tidal Energy; Tidal Energy Converters; Tidal Array; Tidal Farm
Authors: S. Samarawickrama; K. S.P.Karunadasa; H. C.D.P.Colomboge; I. R.M.Kottegoda; D. S. Samarawickrama
Abstract: Contamination of water due to various organic substances such as bacteria, pesticides causes serious health issues. A reactor system was fabricated utilizing renewable solar energy for purification of pollutants dissolved in drinking water. A novel glass tube based prototype reactor was constructed by coating nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2) inside the glass tubes. The Nano-TiO2 was deposited on the bottom surface of the clear glass tubes and is connected in parallel increasing the surface area. For highly contaminated water, increased number of connected tubes and/or several reactors and/or slow flow rate of water are possible. In the present study single reactor module was used for convenience. The reactor was exposed to sunlight and the contaminated water was passed through the reactor. The photocatalytic activity including antibacterial activity was tested using Methylene blue and the bacterial culture, Escherichia coli. The reactor system is found to be effective in decontaminating the tested organic entities. The reactor module can be used to purify water for drinking purpose and can be fixed on top of roofs for exposure to sunlight.
Keywords: Solar Energy; Titanium Dioxide; Photocatalyst