Volume 3 Issue 1
Authors: L. N. Gupta; Ram Avtar; Pankaj Kumar; R. L. Verma; Netrananda Sahu; Sourav Sil; Archana Jayaraman; Koel Roychowdhury; Emmanuel Mutisya; Kamlesh Sharma; Sudhir Kumar Singh; G. S. Gupta
Abstract: The River Mandakini is one of the holy rivers of India, which flows across the Chitrakoot area of the eastern part of Bundelkhand region. Its water is shared by the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Water quality assessment of the river Mandakini from Sati Anusuya to Ramghat was carried out at various locations. Various water quality physico-chemical parameters, including temperature, pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, alkalinity, chloride, sulphate, fluoride, nitrate, dissolved oxygen (DO), and bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD), were analyzed. Correlation analysis was done to identify the highly correlated and interrelated water-quality parameters. Concentrations of conductivity, TDS, hardness, alkalinity and fluoride higher than their prescribed standard were observed at some locations, while other parameters were observed within their prescribed limits. Higher values of turbidity, BOD, chloride and nitrate were observed at the downstream end of the river, which could be due to the cumulative pollution load from the sewerage discharge from nearby urban settlement, sacred mass bathing points, and agricultural runoff discharge into the river. A schematic diagram was used to trace point and non-point sources of pollutants responsible for governing the river water quality in a spatial scale.
Keywords: Mandakini River; Water Quality; Conductivity; TDS; Hardness; Alkalinity; Chloride; Nitrate
Authors: Eric Escobar; Lubo Liu
Abstract: The interaction between surface water and groundwater was investigated by monitoring and analyzing the groundwater table’s fluctuation in the study area, Ball Ranch of California. Based on the observed data and computer modeling results, this paper studied how groundwater was affected by the flux of the nearby San Joaquin River, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. The site is also bordered and highly influenced by the San Joaquin River located to the west of the site. The flux of the river is reflected in the monitoring wells with a noticeable lag time that was measured using a data logger. This lag time varied based upon the distance of the monitoring well from an open surface water feature such as the main pond. The water table is also affected by the recharge effects of precipitation on the site. These effects along with evapotranspiration have been taken into account while developing the mathematical model for this site. The groundwater flow direction for most of the parts was consistent with the initial hypothesis. The groundwater model can fairly describe the observed data and can be used for the groundwater prediction.
Keywords: Interaction; Water Table; Modeling; Groundwater; Surface Water
Authors: T.A. Tizro; K.S. Voudouris; M. Kamali
Abstract: Evaluation of the hydraulic parameters of aquifers is essential for estimating and developing groundwater resources. Constant discharge pumping tests, monitoring the groundwater level variations in observation wells, can be expensive and time consuming. This paper introduces an approach that is efficient and economical and probably can replace the full pumping test. Well-choosing through field survey, constant discharge pumping tests and step drawdown tests are used in this study to determine the transmissivity (T) of the Kangavar aquifer, located in western Iran. To describe the geological characteristics of the subsurface formations, 16 vertical electrical soundings were performed and interpreted using Schlumberger array. To estimate the transmissivity by a step drawdown test, the aquifer coefficient (n) in well was computed by solving the Miller and Weber equation, through Fixed Point Iteration numerical method by using Visual Basic 6.5 programming. Contours of transmissivity attained through constant discharge and step drawdown tests were plotted for the study area, using kriging method. The results obtained were analyzed applying statistical comparisons, through which no significant difference was observed. Finally, it is concluded that step drawdown test can be used as an alternative to the expensive and time consuming constant discharge tests.
Keywords: Groundwater; Aquifer; Pumping Test; Step Drawdown Pumping Test; Transmissivity; Statistical Analysis
Authors: Ananthayya. M.B; Gicy M Kovoor; Shesha Prakash
Abstract: Inverted V-Notch, as a measuring device, is found to have a near linear head-discharge relationship with the flow through the weir beyond a base-flow depth. This paper is concerned with the analysis of the flow over an Inclined Inverted V-Notch (IIVN) from a different perspective. Based on experimental work on 00 (normal), 150, 300, 450 and 600 weirs inclinations with the vertical plane across the flow direction, a generalized inclined-head-discharge equation was established for the flow through the weir. It was shown that the IIVN retains near linear discharge-head characteristics even when it is inclined to the channel bed. The discharge estimated by the linear discharge-head relationship was found to be in good agreement with the actual discharge and this was validated by the near unity regression coefficients of the same experimental data. Furthermore, the advantages of Inward Trapezoidal Weir as a flow measuring and flow control device were highlighted. With the linear head-discharge relationships and increased discharging capacity, the weir can be used in flood situations for flow measurements as the discharge can be directly read-off from the Piezometric graduations. In addition, the maintenance of uniform velocity, independent of discharge variation in sedimentation tanks or grit chambers, is an absolute necessity to settle the grit. The IIVN can maintain the uniform velocity irrespective of the variation of discharge and is highly useful in such situations.
Keywords: Weirs; IVN; IIVN; Inclined-weir-discharging-index; Discharge Coefficient; Flow measurement and Afflux.