Volume 4 Issue 2
Authors: Kavita Agarwal; Mahender Prasad; Rishi Sharma; Dipak Kumar Setua
Abstract: Lignin is evolved from wood having feature of good biodegradation properties. The samples were exposed to standard culture media for fixed intervals of time and evaluated for changes in their physical properties, thermal stability and morphology. Rubber vulcanizates were analyzed for physico-mechanical properties and thermal stability, and compared with fillers like phenolics resin and carbon black and lignin. Fillers are used to reinforce polymers to improve properties of matrices for biological activity. Lignin reinforced rubber biocomposite has been found to produce superior elongation properties compared to phenolic resin but inferior to carbon black. The development of commercially viable “green products” based on natural resources for both matrices and reinforcements for a wide range of applications is on the rise. This effort includes new pathways to produce natural polymers with better mechanical properties and thermal stability using nanotechnology and use of natural polymers to make biodegradable plastics and their composites with lignin. The present study was initiated to isolate and characterize a number of NBR-degrading bacteria from various ecosystems in India. It also suggests that rubber-degrading bacteria might be useful for the disposal of discarded rubber products (waste management). This paper presents the effect of different bacteria through in vitro antimicrobial activity in NBR, NBR with phenolic resin, NBR with carbon black and Lignin reinforced Rubber composites. These NBR composites were tested against five pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical samples mainly for SEM studies.
Keywords: Bio-Degradable; Lignin; NBR; SEM
Authors: Shuichi TORII; Cheng Chen
Abstract: The present study is to produce the high calorific fuel using sewage sludge and discarded oil. Consideration was given to the effects of volume fraction of sewage sludge and discarded oil on the optimum production condition and the high calorific fuel. In order to reduce the initial moisture content of sewage sludge, the vacuum drying method was modified and employed. It was found from the study that lower implication water rate causes higher caloric fuel. The maximum calorific value developed is similar to that of coal for reference. This application will accelerate the reuse and reduce of sewage sludge and discarded oil.
Keywords: Biomass; Sewage Sludge; High Calorific Fuel; Decompression; Moisture
Authors: Yasuhiro Sone; Hidenobu Takao; Hidemi Mutsuda; Junpei Miyagi; Yasuaki Doi; Yoshikazu Tanaka
Abstract: Energy harvesting techniques using piezoelectric materials have been rapidly developed in the world. In our previous work, one kind of kinetic energy harvester using a piezoelectric material was proposed and developed; the harvester was called Flexible Piezoelectric Device (FPED). The FPED was applied to wave and current energy, wind energy and vibration energy. In this study, improving the FPED, a new type of wind energy harvester was proposed and developed to generate electric power from broad band of wind conditions, especially low wind and breeze. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric material and a thin soft material, which is Flexible Piezoelectric Sheet (FPS) for wind energy harvesting. The theoretical approach was provided using a classical modal analysis technique. The electric performance of the FPS in several wind conditions was revealed and some important design parameters of the FPS were shown based on experimental results.
Keywords: Wind Energy; Energy Harvesting; Piezoelectric Material; Fluid-Structural Interaction
Authors: Guoqi He; Hongzhi Yan; Ying He; Xingli Ren
Abstract: Gear vibration signal contains all the information of gear meshing process; it could make a full, true and rapid response to the operating status of gear. By testing the vibration of different speeds of face-gear and analyzing the vibration signal from the extracted spectrum of harmonic amplitude, it was found that as the spindle rotation speed increases, the harmonic amplitude in each direction of the face-gear and spur gear was reduced. However, for the bevel gear meshing vibration testing, the adjusting vibration amplitudes in all directions were increasing. Therefore, the driven of face-gear is more suitable than the bevel gear for high speed transmission applications.
Keywords: Face-Gear; Meshing Performance; Spectrum Analysis; Harmonic Amplitude
Authors: A. Mihelic-Bogdanic; R. Budin
Abstract: Energy efficiency improvement in polyester production by applying boiler flue gases heat recovery was investigated. This study presented increasing process efficiency and at the same time the thermal pollution reduced. The implementation of the economizer for feed water preheating with heat contained in the exhaust flue gases reduced natural gas consumption by 9.2 % and also flue gases exhaust temperature diminished from 204 0C to 51.8 0C. When an air preheater using for combustion air preheating was applied, the natural gas savings became 7%. Simultaneously, the air pollution was also lowered and the outlet flue gases temperature diminished from 204 0C to 64.40C. The utilization of the economizer and the air preheater resulted in a maximum fuel saving of 10.15% and a minimum thermal pollution with flue gases exhaust temperature of 31.150C.
Keywords: Polyester; Flue gases heat recovery, Natural gas savings; Environmental protection