Volume 4 Issue 3
Authors: Monica da Hora; Luiz Legey
Abstract: The guarantee of multiple water use is one of the main objectives of the Brazilian system of managing water resources. However, it is still unclear how to reach these objectives regarding hydropower plants. This paper introduces a method for support of hydropower plants taking into account the compatibility with multiple water uses. It also introduces a computational tool based on the proposed method, which assesses energy generation and possible losses associated with meeting upstream water demand. A case study of the Tocantins and Araguaia basins (Amazon region) is presented. The results obtained corroborate the applicability of the proposed method.
Keywords: Amazon region; SisUca; Energy generation; Water conflict
Authors: Irfan Ahmed shaikh
Abstract: The first patented textile dyeing machine having an Ozone injection system was developed to treat wastewater liquor coming from the reactive dyeing process. Controlled quantities of ozone gas were injected in the machine during the washing process to decolourize dyes present in wastewater as well as on fabric surface. Several different dyings were carried out in the machine using variety of reactive dyes. At the completion of dying process, washings were carried out using ozone in the jet dyeing machine, and the process was continued until the wastewater is decolorized around 90-100%. The decolourization effectiveness of liquor was considered as an indicative of colour removal from the dyed fabric because fabric was being rinsed simultaneously during oxidative decolourization treatment. Fabric samples rinsed with both conventional and ozone based methods were evaluated for fastness properties, change of shade, fabric appearance, and colour fading. On the whole, the results suggested that the application of O3 during textile washing process resulted into reduced water consumption and lowered processing time without deteriorating colourand fastness properties.
Keywords: Ozone; Wash-off; Reactive dyes; Jet Dyeing Machine; Fastness
Authors: Yury A Noskov; Yury A Yurchenko; Saskia Knillmann; Nathalie C Stampfli; Mikhail A Beketov; Matthias Liess; Olga E Belevich
Abstract: It is well known that environmental factors can affect toxicants impact on ecosystems (Clements, Newman, 2002). However, the estimation of pesticides toxicity most often bases on the results of standard toxicity tests, which include some suitable species of aquatic organisms (Organisation, 2000; Methods, 2000).Laboratory and semi-field investigations with different species are required for appropriate assessment and prediction of pesticides effects on non-target organisms. To understand the influence of combined effect of biotic and abiotic factors on pesticides toxicity, a semi-field experiment with outdoor microcosms has been conducted in Western Siberia (Karasuk, Russia) and in Central Europe (Leipzig, Germany). The effect of pyrethroid in secticide esfenvalerate (0.03, 0.3 and 3 µg/L) on freshwater communities under regulation of ecological factors was evaluated. We studied combined effects of two factors – both shading and low density of invertebrates. Abiotic factors (i.e. temperature, conductivity, insolation level) significantly vary in the shaded and unshaded ponds, as well as pH differing (p<0.05) in the ponds with and without harvesting.
Keywords: Ecological Factors，Toxicant Stress，Freshwater Zooplankton Community ，
Authors: A.V Tatarinov; L.I. Yalovik; E.V Danilova
Abstract: In the Lake Baikal region, freshwater Baikal mega area and six spatially isolated areas of bacterial communities, localized in water reservoirs of mineralized waters of mud volcanic origin, have been identified. The fluid-dynamic factors of areal formation have been considered, and analysis has been conducted regarding the characteristics of prevailing and specific functional groups and the genera of microorganisms, representing bacterial communities.
Keywords: Areas; Bacteria; Seismicity; Heat Flow; Geo-fluid-dynamic Mode; Thermal Spring
Authors: Christopher M Mah; Jeff T Dawley; Elmira Ryabova; Olivia Niitsoo
Abstract: The maintenance of water distribution and storage systems worldwide is a costly process due to corrosion. Corrosion severely reduces the useful lifetime of water distribution pipes and mains, and adversely affects the quality of potable water. Corrosion-resistant protective coatings are an excellent means to address the issue by creating a barrier that prevents access of water as a corrosion-mediating electrolyte to the pipe wall and the subsequent dissolution and erosion of contaminants from the pipe wall into the water. Advenira’s environmentally friendly Solution Derived Nanocomposite (SDN®) coating technology has yielded two different protective coating formulations. This paper reports the properties of these coatings with particular focus on corrosion prevention in water distribution and storage systems.
Keywords: Protective Coatings; Corrosion; Water Distribution; Environmentally Friendly; Nanocomposite
Authors: Reza Mastoori; Reza Moshtagh; Hassan Pourfallah Koushali
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the use of system dynamics (SD) techniques as a methodology by which to study dynamically complex problems in water resources management. A dynamic system method with objective modelling is based on feedback; hence it can model complicated water resources systems and can act as a useful management tool. In this study, a dynamic system model is applied to the Sefīd-Rūd Watershed in northern Iran. This model includes the river catch basin, dam reservoir and the irrigation system of the studied area. Finally, the liability of the model is tested and verified with observed data and statistics criteria. The risk analysis of water demand deficit in the water supply of the Sefīd-Rūd provided by the Sefīd-Rūd dam is simulated and analysed according to three different scenarios of 15%, 30% and 45% of the reservoir intake water deficit as a result of constructing new dam on the Qizil Uzun River, using dynamic system analysis with a Vensim model. The results indicate that the liability of water demand provisions in normal conditions (75%) in case of a water intake deficit varies; in abnormal conditions such as 15%, 30% and 45%, the liability adjusts to 48, 57 and 35, respectively. This has the potential to cause serious troubles and challenges for farmers in the region, struggling to meet their water demands
Keywords: Sefīd-Rūd Da; Vensim; Irrigation Water Demand
Authors: Jong Pil Kim; Won Kim; Il-Won Jung; Gwangseob Kim
Abstract: Runoff prediction in ungauged watersheds is regarded as one of the major issues in contemporary hydrology. This study examined the utility of remote sensor datasets for parameter regionalization. A distributed hydrologic model, the Coupled Routing and Excess Storage (CREST) model, was employed to simulate runoff conditions in the mountainous watersheds over South Korea. In gauged watersheds, the relationships between the optimized parameter set of the hydrologic model and the physiographic properties of the gauged watersheds were investigated using multiple linear regressions. The regression parameters for the ungauged watersheds were then validated and assessed. Results demonstrated that the hydrologic model and the proposed regression equations could acceptably simulate the discharge in both gauged and ungauged watersheds. However, they provided somewhat biased discharge for all the ungauged watersheds. In further studies, these biases should be reduced by investigating other watersheds and finding physiographic properties highly related to the model parameters.
Keywords: Runoff Prediction; Ungauged Watersheds; TRMM; Multi-satellite; Regionalization
Authors: I. S SHABANDA; J. I. SHABANDA
Abstract: Human activities have been the major causes of water pollution, and the presence of heavy metals could be an indicator that water bodies are polluted. This research examined the concentration of heavy metals in well and bore hole water from three different areas in Aliero town: Bodiga, Labana farm and Kalli. The analysis was conducted byAtomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The concentrations of the metals in sample A (Bodiga) appeared in the order Fe 1.638±0.0011 ppm > Mn 0.172±0.0002 ppm > Pb 0.113±0.0001 ppm > Cu 0.081±0.0006 ppm > Ni 0.001±0.0002 ppm; the concentrations in sample B (Labana, bore hole water) was in increasing order of Fe 1.260±0.0016 ppm > Pb 0.234±0.0002 ppm> Mn 0.100±0.0001 ppm > Cu 0.060±0.0002 ppm. The concentrations in sample C (Kalli, well water) appeared in increasing order of Fe 1.973±0.0011 ppm > Pb 0.323±0.0002 ppm > Mn 0.186±0.0003 ppm > Cu 0.101±0.0003 ppm > Ni 0.012±0.0003 ppm.The concentrations of Fe and Pb in all three sources of water was found to be above the WHO standards while concentrations of copper, nickel, and manganese were found to be below the maximum limit of WHO standards. The inhabitants who used the water for both consumption and domestic purposes should be enlightened on the toxicological effects of these heavy metals to human health, plants and animals. There is therefore the need for proper monitoring of the water by the proper governmental agencies.
Keywords: Heavy Metals; Wells; Bore Hole; Labana; Pollutio
Authors: Olusegun O Odukoya; Temilade Akinhanmi; Temitope M. Osobamiro; Oladunni Akinnawo
Abstract: The ability of the water hyacinth plant to clean industrial effluents of their pollutants was investigated. Effluents from fourteen industries (two of each type) were collected, the pH adjusted to 6.5 to 7.5 and water hyacinth plants were cultured in them for seven days. Results show that the effluents were completely cleaned of their heavy metals contents, which included lead, iron, zinc, chromium, copper and cadmium. Sodium levels were reduced by between 77% and 100% while potassium levels were reduced by between 59% and 100%. The anions and other pollutants were substantially reduced. For example, nitrate levels were reduced by between 50% and 78%, phosphate by between 86% and 96%, phenol by between 37% and 54%, COD by between 25% and 75% and conductivity by between 6% and 43%. The plant's ability to remove metals appears to be greater than its ability to shed non-metallic pollutants. The organism's [Angela Hi1] capacity to remove nitrates from water is critical due to its potential as a major contribution towards controlling nitrate pollution of drinking water, which is currently a source of major social concern.
Keywords: Pollution Control; Water Hyacinth; Industrial Effluents; Pollutants; Nitrate
Authors: Ioan Sarbu; Ioan Alexandru Filip
Abstract: As part of general environmental protection measures, simple, easy-to-maintain and efficient water treatment installations are necessary for the treatment of wastewater from isolated buildings, from transport vehicles (which cannot be connected to a public sewage network) and from industrial enterprises that evacuate great concentrations of oil and fat into the public sewage network. This study describes two plants designed for local wastewater treatment: (1) an autonomous plant, containing self-cleaning filters for wastewater treatment from buildings and transport vehicles (trains, mobile homes, and boats); (2) a small plant for housing wastewater treatment from isolated buildings (vacation houses, fuel distribution stations and their annexes) or wastewater from industrial enterprises with their own low-capacity purification stations. Additionally, we present an efficient cavitation air flotation system which isolates fats, oils and solid particles from the wastewater of cities and industrial areas in a colloidal suspension; this system adequately processes the wastewater from the particles to be evacuated. By promoting the proposed solutions, optimal hygiene and public health conditions can be assured by avoiding water, soil and air pollution in these community areas.
Keywords: Environmental Protection; Wastewater Treatment; Efficient Local Plants; Cavitation Air Location
Authors: Danni Guo; Charles F Musil; Guy F. Midgley; James Ayuk
Abstract: The Restionaceae species of the fynbos biome is part of the Cape floral kingdom, one of only six floristic kingdoms in the world. It is threatened by urbanization, agricultural expansion and groundwater extraction. Therefore, it is necessary to assess and monitor the Restionaceae species. South Africa is a semi-arid environment and hydrological factors are the main variables in the determination of species niches. This study investiagates the microclimate at Silvermine, and examines the contribution of hydrological variables to plant species distribution, thus creating a hydrological niche. This study generates its own unique microclimate hydrological datasets for modelling species niche. Additionally, this study assessed and modelled the effectiveness of the use of hydrological variables to determine species hydrological niche, at a microclimate level in a semi-arid environment. It also provided evidence regarding the importance of the study to conservation and future climate change impact analysis of plant species and species richness.
Keywords: Hydrological Niche; Restionaceae; Fynbos Biome; Microclimate; Silvermine; South Africa
Authors: Sombat Chuenchooklin; Saharat Taweepong; Udomporn Pangnakorn
Abstract: The Pua Watershed is one of many small catchments in the Upper Nan River Basin, located in the upper portion of the Great Chao Phraya River Basin in Nan Province, Thailand. It was previously considered as an ungauged catchment due to the lack of observed hydrological data. It usually faces flood problems, affecting primarily farmland and residential areas. Two models from the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) were applied: the Hydrologic Modeling System (HMS), and the River Analysis System model (RAS). HMS was used to synthesize daily flood hydrographs from existing daily rainfall data over its catchment, while RAS presents flood behaviors in the river reaches including existing cross-sectional profiles. The HMS model was calibrated in 2008 and validated in 2011 with observed daily rainfall and streamflow data collected at a gauge station in the catchment. Flood mapping on the topographic map in 2011 was delineated from the products by RAS. The simulated results from both the HMS and RAS models fit the observed data well, which can be applied to further efficient flood relief plans and management for any river basin.
Keywords: Rainfall-runoff Models; HMS; RAS; Ungauged Catchment; Flood Mapping