Volume 2 Issue 10
Authors: Dalni Malta do Espírito Santo Filho; Felipe de Oliveira Baldner; Paulo Lyra Simões Ferreira; Claudia Santos Cardoso de Castro; Claudio Roberto da Costa Rodrigues; Alex Pablo Ferreira Barbosa
Abstract: In this article we compare the viscosity-temperature behaviour of two types of biodiesel. The biofuels investigated were produced from soybean and sunflower, both transesterified with methanol. Viscosity was measured with capillary viscometers from 20 ºC to 40 ºC. Measurement uncertainty was calculated. The behaviour of the viscosity with temperature is analyzed considering the estimated uncertainty. Three mathematical models were applied to the experimental viscosity values of soybean and sunflower biodiesels as a function of temperature: a polynomial function of third degree, the Vogel equation, and the ASTM D341 equation. Results show that they all agree with the experimental data within 1% of relative deviation.
Keywords: Soybean Biodiesel; Sunflower Biodiesel; Capillary Viscometer; Uncertainty of Measurement
Authors: V.K. Garg; Bhupinder Singh
Abstract: High concentration of fluoride in the groundwater of different parts of the world is responsible for widespread fluorosis. Haryana State in India is one such region where groundwater is laden with higher fluoride concentration. Since there are no major studies in the recent past, the present study was carried out to quantify the present status of groundwater quality in some rural habitations of Haryana State and also to assess the possible causes for high concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The fluoride concentration in underground water was quantified in five villages of Hodal block, Faridabad district of Haryana state (India) where it is the only source of drinking water. Various other water quality parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, total hardness, total alkalinity, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, phosphate, nitrate-nitrogen and sulphate concentrations were also measured. A systematic calculation of correlation coefficients among different physico-chemical parameters was performed. The analytical results indicated considerable variations among the analyzed samples with respect to their chemical composition. Majority of the samples do not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameters measured. The fluoride concentration in the underground water of study area varied from 1.0 to 40.0 mg/l, Overall water quality was unsuitable for drinking purposes without any prior treatment. The results indicated that weathering of rocks and anthropogenic activities were responsible for high fluoride concentration in groundwater of this area.
Keywords: Fluoride; Groundwater; Ion selective electrode; Fluorosis; Rocks
Authors: Yungchen Yao; Anlin Chang; Jiunhorng Tsai
Abstract: Motorcycles are one of the dominant sources of air pollutants in many Asian countries. This study focuses on the effect of fuel aromatic content on motorcycle emissions. Two levels of aromatic content test-fuels were designed to investigate the criteria pollutant emissions [CO, total hydrocarbons (THCs), and NOx] and gaseous organic compounds in the exhaust from a non-catalyst four-stroke motorcycle engine. All experiments were operated in a cold start mode. The data indicate that lowering aromatic content in gasoline from 30 to 20% (by volume) reduced the CO and THC emission by 8-17% and 38%, respectively, especially in the cruising test. The NOx emission, however, showed an inverse correlation with the aromatic content in gasoline. Contrary to expectations, the emission factors of four organic groups and ozone formation potential showed that the low aromatic fuel with highest emission factors. While a reduction of aromatic content in gasoline may decrease emissions of benzene and toluene, it will increase the emission of aldehyde. Since the percentage changes of emission factor of THC and air toxics in the motorcycle were larger than those in passenger cars, the benefit of emission reduction due to fuel composition changes in motorcycles may have significant impacts in health risk analysis.
Keywords: Motorcycle; Aromatic Contents; Criteria Air Pollutant; Organic Air Pollutants; Ozone Formation Potential
Authors: C.L. Nongpiur; D.F. Diengdoh; E.R. Dkhar; P. Baruah; R. Decruse; D.G. Marbaniang
Abstract: Vegetables provide the human body with the essential bioavailable trace elements, and a constant supply of these various elements is necessary and highly recommended for daily life. Minor elements such as Fe as well as trace elements such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in 8 different species of vegetables from the local markets in and around the city of Shillong, Meghalaya, India. The different vegetables were Diplazium esculentum (Fern), Curcuma longa (Tumeric), Beta Vulgaris (Beet), Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Oenanthe javanica, Houttuynia cordata, Mentha asiatica (asian mint), Coriandrum sativum (Coriandar), Spinacia oleracea (Spinach) and Lactuca sativa (Lettuce). The results reveal that the different element concentrations of each vegetable depend upon the selective uptake of the elements by the plant. The element concentrations of these vegetables were within safety baseline levels for human consumption.
Keywords: Essential; Intake; Metals; Toxic; Vegetables
Authors: D.S. Bhargava; Babita Tyagi; Ritu Kapoor; Deepa Sinha
Abstract: The use of mathematical models to assess the pollution level in water bodies is widely accepted by environmental engineers as well as the managers involved in planning of the existing water resources. Various one dimensional models that are developed so far are applicable only after complete mixing of the pollutant across the cross-section is over which may take longer time for rivers with large width. Such type of situation is not represented effectively by various existing one dimensional models. Moreover, many of these one dimensional models do not account for the settle able part of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) that invariably takes place when partially treated/ untreated waste enters these water bodies. A model that is not more complicated than a one dimensional model but rationally predict the Dissolved Oxygen(DO) conditions in almost 80% of mixing period is presented which can be used in conditions when partially treated/untreated waste is discharged in water body.
Keywords: Mathematical Model; DO; BOD; Water Pollution