Volume 4 Issue 1
Authors: María Pérez Ortega; Ma Eugenia Pérez González; José Luis González López
Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to assess and monitor water pollution using satellite images, orthophotos, analytical data, and fieldwork in a group of Spanish wetlands located in central Spain. The increase in large-scale irrigation schemes, intensive exploitation of water resources, and the water pollution in this area has seriously impacted these habitats. A multi-temporal analysis carried out from 1989 to 2013 showed the improvement or deterioration in water quality of seven of these wetlands. The water quality was determined using analytical and remote sensing data (vegetation index, and spectral and spatial profiles). Two case studies were presented: one wetland showed a remarkable improvement in water quality, with high eutrophication levels reduced as part of a clear decontamination process; the waters of the other wetland remained unaffected by eutrophication processes throughout the study period. Remote sensing techniques only detect the presence of algae in wetlands, and analysis of the water is needed to confirm pollution. The integrated use of both methods would enable consultants and wetland managers to manage these areas more effectively and mitigate pollution problems.
Keywords: Monitoring wetlands; Water pollution; Remote sensing; NDVI.
Authors: M. Bahadir; N. Dichtl
Abstract: Water is among the 21st century’s key development issues. The Project Exceed of Braunschweig University addresses the MDG 7/C ‘‘Ensure Environmental Sustainability’’. Based on the world-wide network of 35 partner universities in 18 countries on 4 continents, this Excellence Centre focuses on capacity building in developing countries through training and networking. To achieve these goals, the existing study programs at partner universities related to sustainable water management are analyzed and upgraded; new courses are initiated for further education of scientific and technical staff at universities, enterprises, and public authorities. Summer schools, international workshops, and expert seminars as well as an intense exchange of students, young scientists, and academic teachers in all directions, south-north, north-south, and south-south, are organized for capacity building. The same topics are also the subject of joint teaching and research activities at Exceed member universities and the International Exceed Guest Chair and Team established at the Braunschweig University.
Keywords: Sustainable Water Management; Developing Countries; Capacity Building
Authors: P.K. Majumdar
Abstract: Usually aquifer parameters are estimated through pumping/recharge test. Precondition for using those parameters in the numerical model is to ensure the synonymy of the hydro-geological condition between the field setup and the conceptual model. In many cases, it is erroneous. While numerical modelling in multi-aquifer considered vertical flow in general, it was reflected in the pumping solutions only to the extent of treating a leakage through the aquitard. As such well characterisation in multi aquifers separated by an aquiclude is illusive in the literature. As a result of which, interconnected aquifers were considered as isolated ones in the pumping/recharge tests. Therefore, estimated parameters were for a single aquifer, not for an aquifer connected to multi aquifers. In the present paper, the solution for a multi-aquifer system comprising of two interconnected aquifers separated by an aquiclude is presented. Vertical flow in the well bore with well loss due to friction has been considered. It is concluded that multi-aquifer parameters computed using present solution technique are more scientific and economical.
Keywords: Interconnected aquifers; Diffusivity Ratio; Well Bore Interaction; Equivalent Single Aquifer; the Friction Parameter
Authors: Amitabha Mukhopadhyay
Abstract: The mass ratio of chloride to sulphate in different samples of groundwater from the Raudhatain - Umm AL-Aish area of Kuwait was investigated to assess the extent of contamination of the groundwater by the seawater used for extinguishing the oil fire ignited by the Iraqi Army during the 1991 Gulf War and by the brine that gushed out with oil from the damaged wells. Previous investigations indicated that the seawater from the Arabian Gulf, which was used for fire fighting, had the total dissolved solids (TDS) contents of 45,000 mg/l and a Cl/SO4 mass ratio of 7.19. The brines produced with oil from the Sabriya and the Raudhatain oil fields adjacent to the freshwater fields of Umm Al-Aish and Raudhatain were characterized by TDS in the range of 172,000 to 256,000 mg/l and Cl/SO4mass ratio in the range of 118 to 267. In contrast, unpolluted (with no petroleum hydrocarbon) groundwater in the water fields had TDS in the range of 320 to 5,500 mg/l and Cl/SO4 mass ratio below 1.3. It was, therefore, surmised that wherever groundwater in the study area had Cl/SO4 mass ratio values higher than about 1.5, contamination by seawater and/or oilfield brine could be suspected; and when this value exceeded 7.5, contamination by oilfield brine could be inferred. The current investigation observed Cl/SO4 mass ratio as high as 23.5 in areas where groundwater had high (>0.05 soil oil equivalent [SOE] units) hydrocarbon content. Positive correlations between TDS, hydrocarbon content and Cl/SO4 mass ratio in such areas suggested that hydrocarbons and salts from seawater and oilfield brine moved together and did contaminate the groundwater in some parts of the study area.
Keywords: Groundwater; Pollution; Raudhatain; Umm Al-Aish; Petroleum Hydrocarbon
Authors: James D. Brownridge
Abstract: Ponds are universally used to store water for a large number of uses. With the increasing demand for more fresh water, ponds, lakes and reservoirs are likely to be constructed on a larger scale. We must understand the effects of environmental changes on fresh water if we are to most efficiently utilize this resource. This study undertakes to increase our understanding of the rate of thermal response of ponds and other bodies of water to every-day environmental changes. The central research agenda is to investigate how the temperature of pond water from top to bottom responds to the day/night cycle, changes in air temperature just above the surface, cloud conditions, and other sudden environmental changes. Data collection for this study spanned October 2007 to June 2011 and had a continuous time resolution of 50 seconds.
Keywords: Pond Water; Pond Stratification; Water Temperature; Thermal Activity
Authors: Touba Hamule; Asadolah Farhadi; Parisa Ghashghaee pour; Mohammad Ali Takassi
Abstract: In this study, the thermodynamic property of isothermal adsorption of aluminum ion from aqueous solutions was investigated with activated carbon absorbent. The isothermal adsorption of aluminum ion by activated carbon absorbent was found to be an endothermic process. The adsorption of ion increases when temperature is elevated. Thermodynamic parameters were obtained. The values of ∆G, ∆H and ∆S are -1127.3, 4716.5, 19.6 j/mol. g(adsorbent) respectively. The adsorption was observed to be a spontaneous process. The adsorption of aluminum ion on activated carbon did not follow the Langmuir isotherm for liquid adsorbate on solid adsorbent. However, the adsorption follows the Freundlich isotherm. The nature of adsorption is physisorption. This investigation studied all effective parameters involved in the adsorption process: concentration of adsorbate, level of adsorbent, contact time, pH, and temperature. It was found that the adsorption of aluminum ion from aqueous solutions increases by increasing the concentration of adsorbate. The study concluded that the amount of adsorption increases by increasing the time of contact between adsorbate and adsorbent and also by increasing the level of absorbent. The study also revealed that maximum adsorption occurs at pH 5, and adsorption decreases at pH levels lower and higher than 5.
Keywords: aluminum; activated carbon; adsorption; isotherm; physisorption
Authors: Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman; Minjiao Lu
Abstract: An autocorrelation value only implies the strength of the soil moisture memory (SMM) without specifying its statistical significance. This study proposed a conversion of autocorrelation values into a time scale considering statistical significance at 95% confidence level. It computed a SMM time scale of 56.13 days for the Spoon river basin, Illinois, and was highly consistent with previous regional estimations (1.8-2.1 months). Additionally, the time scales showed a fair correlation with the 30-day-lagged autocorrelations (R2=0.58). This time scale is easily understandable and provides more information than simple autocorrelations, suggesting significant autocorrelations deal with just a single number.
Keywords: Soil Moisture Autocorrelation; Soil Moisture Memory; Soil Moisture Persistence; Soil Moisture Memory Timescale; Xinanjiang Model
Authors: Berta I. Chelnokova; George A. Chelnokov; Ivan V. Bragin; Natalia A. Kharitonova
Abstract: The low-temperature thermal water in the Primorye Region of the Far East of Russia is traditionally important for medical purposes. A hydrogeochemical study based on 30 samples, including thermal springs, streams and well water has been carried out in the Goriachii geothermal area. The initial year-round survey on the condition of the spring water and the environment has shown that the thermal water demonstrates slight seasonal variation in chemical composition, but no significant seasonal variation in temperature and discharge. The geochemical testing of the surface stream indicated the influence of the thermal area on the surface water, which is exhibited in the hidden discharge. The testing of the head and mouth of the Teplii spring has shown that the increase in the water temperature has reached 2.5° C for every 700 m distance. Simultaneous, the alkalinity and the mineralization increase by a magnitude of up to 1.5. The concentrations of sulphates and sodium likewise increase, while the concentrations of calcium and magnesium decrease.
Keywords: thermal water; Primorye; hydrogeochemistry; Goriachii Kliuch, environmental implications
Authors: Alfredo Santana; Ricardo Valdivia; Joel Pacheco; Marquidia Pacheco
Abstract: The present work depicts results acquired from a chemical model and validated by a set of experiments on the treatment of acetone-polluted water by a non-thermal plasma technique. Results reveal the formation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, a combination of gases better known as syngas, which were then clarified with a chemical kinetic model. From this model, the influence of hydroxyl radicals is highlighted by extraordinary reactivity during the acetone treatment and its conversion to syngas (CO+H2). This study proposes a low energy density non-thermal plasma technique to depollute wastewater containing different levels of acetone.
Keywords: Acetone polluted water; Non-thermal plasma; energetic gases production
Authors: William A. Laride
Abstract: Brown groundwater from Santa Barbara, Iloilo, Philippines was treated with concentrated hydrochloric acid resulting in the precipitation ofdark brown substances. The precipitate was analysed under anFT-IR spectrophotometer with absorption wavelengths revealingthe presence of alkene, aromatic, carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl, phenol and polysaccharide functional groups. Comparison of the absorption wavelengths with previous studies confirmed that the precipitate was humic acid (HA). The same water sample was also saturated with selected metal ions: Fe3+, Cr3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+, resulting in the precipitation oflight to dark brown substances. When subjected to FT-IR analysis, the precipitate showed positive results for the formation of metal complexes with humic acid. The absorption wavelength revealedthat the active binding sites for Fe3+, Cr3+, Ni2+ and Cu2+metal-humatecomplexes are the oxygen atoms of the humic acid carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. This was indicated by the reduction of the distinctive COO- symmetric stretching from 1712 cm-1 to 1600 cm-1in humic acid and the appearance of COO-antisymmetric stretching at 1400 cm-1 in the metal–humates. A similar lowering of the COO- symmetric stretch and the appearance of the COO-antisymmetric stretch were also observed for the Cd2+ and Pb2+metal-humatecomplexes. However, it was determined that the binding sites for Cd2+ and Pb2+were limited to the carboxyl functional group, because the absorption band relating to the carbonyl oxygen (C=O) was still observed in their IR spectra.
Keywords: Humic acid; Humic substances; Infrared spectroscopy; Metalhumates
Authors: Bragin I.V.; Chelnokov G.A.; Zharkov R.V.; Kharitonova N.A.
Abstract: To determine the impact from volcanic fluid on river water quality, we sampled all visible water streams in the Baransky watershed. Using discharge data from Kipyaschiy Creek and the Sernaya River in conjuction with the concentration of components, we calculated the impact of volcanic fluid onto environmental waters. Total washout of components in tons per year: sulfate: 24371, chlorine: 12147, sodium: 4510, calcium: 4181, magnesium: 1773m and potassium: 628. Total washout for trace metals in kilos per year is as follows: lithium: 5969, vanadium: 1799, barium: 2758, rubidium: 4070, nickel: 3295, chromium: 921, copper: 1167, zinc: 6159.
Keywords: Volcanic water chemistry; Water quality; Kuriles; Baransky Volcano.
Authors: J. He; J. Huang; C. Valeo; A. Chu
Abstract: Permeable pavement is a low impact development technology that has been suggested for improvement of urban stormwater management. Performance of permeable pavement has been extensively evaluated by field observations so far. However, modeling tools, which can aid in the design of permeable pavement, are still lacking, particularly in relation to water quality. Therefore, this paper aimed to develop effective modeling approaches to simulate porous concrete pavement, a common type of permeable pavement. To fulfill this objective, both field and laboratory investigations were conducted. An empirical model was developed using laboratory results and field observations, and a conceptual model was formulated based on the physical processes of pollutant removal by porous media. This paper focused on two water quality parameters: total suspended solids and total phosphorus. Both modeling approaches produced fairly good results, which suggest the potential use of both models in practice.
Keywords: Conceptual Model; Empirical Model; Low Impact Development; Porous Concrete Pavement; Water Quality