Volume 4 Issue 2

Authors: N. A. Kharitonova; G. A. Chelnokov; O. V.Chudaev; I. V.Bragin

Abstract: This study presents new data on major element contents, trace and REE concentration of groundwater in Shmakovka Spa, located in the western part of Primorye, in the Far East of Russia. The studied area is characterized by two types of groundwater issuing from springs and wells: fresh water with low mineralization (TDS up to 100 mg/l), and high pCO2 water with high mineralization (TDS up to 3,000 mg/l). Our new data on the chemical composition of groundwater and δ13C(TIC), oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope data, indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric water infiltration into the Sikhote-Alin mountain, circulating at shallow depths in sedimentary rocks. CO2 gas in groundwater may be derived from mantle (magmatic origin), and its role is crucial to high pCO2 groundwater origination.

Keywords: Hydrogeochemistry; High pCO2 Water; Leaching Test; Isotopes; Far East of Russia


Authors: Tawee Chaipimonplin; Thaveesak Vangpaisal

Abstract: The selection of input variables from different techniques can provide different artificial neural network (ANN) model performances. This study utilizes an ANN model to forecast the water level at the M.7 gauge station for t+48 hour. Three objectives to be investigated are: (1) to compare the efficiency of four input determination techniques (cross correlation, stepwise regression, cross correlation with stepwise regression, and genetic algorithm); (2) to investigate the number of hidden nodes from 1-2n+1 node; and (3) to compare two different learning algorithms (Levenberg Marquardt-LM and Baysian Regularization-BR). Results demonstrate that the cross correlation and the cross correlation with stepwise regression techniques are best for selecting input variables to forecast water levels at t+48 hours at the M.7 gauge station. Additionally, the use of only one hidden node is sufficient for the ANN model, and LM and BR learning models perform similarly.

Keywords: Input Determination; Mun Basin; Flood Forecasting; Artificial Neural Network


Authors: André A. Keller

Abstract: Water resources systems (WRS) models involve a large number of continuous and integer quantities. Water quality management problems also require the consideration of uncertainties related to the variability of flow streams and temperatures. WRS dynamics are primarily nonlinear. These characteristic features suggest the use of (stochastic) mixed-integer programming models, as well the use of sensibility analysis and simulations. Moreover, high dimensional real-world models and combinatorial alternatives require adequate tools for large-scale optimization models. These techniques consist of decomposition methods such as the generalized Benders decomposition (GBD) and the branch-and-bound enumerative algorithm. This contribution introduces the subject of modeling WRSs by use of GBD and branch-and-bound algorithms with numerical applications.

Keywords: Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming; Large-Scale Optimization Methods; Generalized Benders Decomposition Algorithm; Water Resource System; Groundwater Management; Water Quality Management


Authors: P. R. Rakhecha

Abstract: Hydrometeorology, like many other branches of meteorology, developed in response to pressing demands for information related to rainfall statistics for use in the safe and economical design of water resource projects. From analyses of rainfall data available at approximately 3000 stations in India, this paper provides: the availability of rain water resources in different states of India, information regarding the greatest rainfalls at different stations, the use of severe rainstorms to estimate design storms including the PMP rainfalls for certain water projects, and guidelines for the homogeneous meteorological zones for storm transposition. It has been established that developed countries require approximately 1,000 m3 of fresh water per capita per year; the water availability per person in India stands at approximately 1,902 m3/year, which is nearly twice the water needed by the people of developed countries. In this sense, water resources in India are of relatively high order.

Keywords: Hydrometeorology; Monsoon; Rainstorm; Moisture Maximization; Climate change


Authors: John Y. Ding

Abstract: This paper focuses on the Brutsaert–Nieber (1977) drought flow or baseflow model, and its exact solution recently rediscovered by Ding (2013). The standard model, −dQ/dt = aQb , is well known for its log (−dQ/dt) versus log (Q) recession–slope plots. On such a plot, exponent b represents the slope of a regression line through the data point cloud, and coefficient or prefactor a the intercept at Q = 1. The exact solution method discovered a half–century ago by Ding (1966) transforms instead the flow rate Q by an inverse–fractional–power (IFP) into a new variable, 1/Qb−1. The transform solution is 1/Qb−1(t) =1/Qb−1(0)+(b − 1)at, if b 1. This converts a recession curve into a straight line. Since only two points, regardless of the distance, are required to define a transformed line, the linearized Brutsaert–Nieber model thus becomes temporal scale invariant (a third point in between is needed to falsify the given exponent b value). A nonlinear groundwater storage–discharge relation was previously derived by integrating the recession hydrograph from time t to ∞. This, Q = cN SN, has two rescaled parameters N and c, both relate back to Brutsaert–Nieber parameters: N = 1/(2 − b), c = (2 − b)a, and Nc = a. Basin or aquifer characteristics, such as the lagtime or half–life, are analytically derivable from the transform solution and the inferred storage–discharge function. For storage-based lagtime, tS/2 = (log 2)/a = 0.693/a, if b = 1; and ((2(b−1)/(2−b) − 1)/((b − 1)a))Q –(b−1)(0), if b 1. Exponent b and prefactor a were recently calibrated by Ding (2013) for four recession events in the Spoon River at Seville, Illinois, USA, a very large watershed of 4237 km2. Units of measurement are days for time t, mm/d for flow rate Q, and mm for storage S; exponent b is dimensionless, and prefactor a has the units of the flow rate Q and of time t. For water supply scenario analysis, three common types of the Ding transform are explored: the linear, and the reciprocals of the cube root and of square root (RoCR and RoSR) transforms. Their exponent b values are 1, 4/3 and 3/2, respectively. The mean calibrated (b, a) values are (1, 0.08), (1.33, 0.12) and (1.5, 0.15). These are used to construct or infer both the groundwater storage–discharge functions and the storage lagtimes for the Spoon River. The lagtimes (in days) are 8.66, 10.33/ , and 13.33/ , respectively. To summarize, the classical Brutsaert–Nieber groundwater flow recession model and an earlier Ding transform solution complement each other, the former having the latter as an exact solution. On an ungauged watershed, small or large, to set up the model for water yield prediction, this requires a minimum of three new flow measurements in the field during a rainless period, supplemented by concurrent evaporation pan measurements.

Keywords: Streamflow Recession Model; Drought Flow; Baseflow; Storage-discharge Function; Basin Lagtime; Water Yield


Authors: Franz Jacobsen; Eugene de Villiers; Francisco Campos; Paolo Geremia

Abstract: The used of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques for the design or upgrade of sludge digesters has significant potential for cost savings; however, validation of modelling techniques is essential for widespread acceptance of this methodology. Queensland Urban Utilities (QUU) is planning to upgrade its four primary mesophilic anaerobic digester tanks at Oxley Creek Water Recycling Plant (WRP) in Brisbane, Australia. A CFD model was used to study the existing arrangements of the sludge digesters to determine the predicted effective volumes in their present configuration and energy inputs. Modifications to the digester tank were proposed to improve the effective mixing volume. A validation of the CFD modeling software for non-Newtonian sludge digesters was conducted using physically measured data obtained from a study based on a similar sized sludge digester located in California.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; CFD; Waste Treatment; Sewerage; Mesophilic; Open FOAM; HELYX; ENGYS


Authors: Mohammad Valipour

Abstract: The present paper aims to estimate the areas equipped for irrigation and the desirability of agricultural water management in Europe. For this purpose, all necessary information was gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and cross referenced using the World Bank Group (WBG). Among all presented data in the FAO database, ten indices were selected (based on relevance and the availability of information on all the countries in Europe). The selected indices were analyzed for all 46 countries and the extent of areas equipped for irrigation of cultivated areas was estimated by two different formulas, using the other nine indices. The results demonstrate that value of relative error is less than 20%. In addition, an average index was calculated using two methods to assess each country’s conditions for agricultural water management.

Keywords: Europe; Irrigation; Socioeconomic Indices; Sustainable Development; Water Management


Authors: J. He; C. Vale; A. Chu

Abstract: The city of Calgary, Canada, has considered reusing stormwater from detention ponds for the irrigation of public lands. The diurnal variability in the water quality of these ponds was studied to ensure public safety. Field observations of diurnal thermal stratification and diurnal variation in water quality were conducted in a stormwater pond during the 2007 irrigation season normally from late June to September. Diurnal thermal stratification occurred in the upper water column, from the surface to approximately 1.2 m in depth. Diurnal variations in microorganisms involved high concentrations during the day and low concentrations at night. Increases in physicochemical water quality parameters at night were observed at the bottom of the water column, at a depth of 1.0 m. Observations suggest that the effects of diurnal thermal stratification alter pond hydrodynamics, and thus, alter the diurnal variation of water quality in turn.

Keywords: Diurnal Stratification; Microorganisms; Stormwater Pond; Water Quality


Authors: P. S Jassal; Neema Chand; Sonal gupta; Rajendra Singh

Abstract: Chitosan, a biopolymer is a natural polysaccharide showing excellent property of adsorption of toxic metal ions present in wastewater. The use of chitosan (CS) is growing exponentially due to its wide range of application in the field of science and technology. The removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous medium is the reflection of adsorption efficiency of chitosan. We have applied the concept of nanotechnology in the form of Magnetite (Fe3O4)- nanoparticles and coated them with our polymer CS to obtain Magnetic Chitosan Nanoparticles (MCNs). The objective of this review is to focus on the performance of magnetized nanoparticles of chitosans as adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous medium. The magnetised nanocomposites of chitosans are with fast rate of adsorption for removal of pollutants as they are easy to recover using an external magnet. This review outlines the synthesis of MNCs and their subsequent characterization on the basis of spectroscopic techniques namely X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Adsorption performances of different MNCs for toxic metal ions viz zinc, cadmium, lead and copper etc. were studied by using VA computrace 797, Metrohm (Switzerland). Voltammetric instrument provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the metal ions present in the given sample via current-voltage graph.

Keywords: Chitosan; Magnetite (Fe3O4); Nanotechnology; Adsorption; Voltammetry


Authors: Ji- Sung Kim; Won Kim; Jong Pil Kim

Abstract: This study presents a method for estimating discharge at a stage- gauging station located in a backwater affected river junction. A hydraulic performance graph (HPG) summarizing the backwater profiles on all possible flow conditions was applied to the river system where the main stream and tributary joinedat the juncture of the main stream and the tributary. The HEC-RAS model for dendritic river was structuredcreated, and the unsteady simulation was implemented for calibration and verification. The relationship between two water levels from existing stage stations at the main stream and the tributary and the discharge at the backwater affected section was was estimated, and the kriging interpolation was carried out. During a flood, event the discharge was calculated using kriging-interpolated HPG and the water level measurements at two stage stations,. It was andthen it was validated by comparing the automatic discharge measurements from ADVM. The result provides an economical and practical method for estimating discharge in a junction with a high hysteresis of looped stage-discharge relationships.

Keywords: Discharge; Rating Curves; Backwater; Hydraulic Performance Graph; HEC-RAS


Authors: Adakole, J. A.; Dauda, M. Z.; Muhammad, A. A.

Abstract: Toxicity of four polluted sites and a reference site in the Bindare stream basin were investigated by a 10-day sediment contact bioassay. The test organism, the fourth instar of Chironomus spp (midge larvae) weighed 60.00 ± 13.00µg. Chironomid growth, crude proteins, and carbohydrate content were determined by conventional methods, as well as sediment metals and water physiochemical parameters. The stream water physicochemical parameters varied with the exception of dissolved oxygen concentration at sites 3 (1.25 ± 2.10mg/L) and 4 (3.20 ± 2.30mg/L), which were within the range suitable for survival of aquatic life. Site 4 sediment demonstrated the highest concentration levels of Zn (4.47 ± 0.11mg/kg), Cu (5.34 ± 0.61mg/kg) and Pb (4.32 ± 0.26mg/kg) while the highest levels of Cd (0.04 ± 0.01 mg/kg) and Fe (26.41 ± 0.81 mg/kg) were obtained at sites 3 and 1, respectively. Chironomid least mean weight gain (12.40 ± 5.46µg) was obtained at site 4, while the highest (22.00 ± 4.47µg) was obtained at site 5. Specific growth rate among the sites were as follows: site 5 > site 2 > site 3 > site 1 > site 4. Chironomids exposed to site 2 sediment had the least carbohydrate content (7.50 ± 1.20 %). Those exposed to site 1 were the most proteinous (19.60 ± 1.10%) while those at site 4 were the least (14.18 ± 1.25%). The measured end points/effects were compared to sediment contaminations and discussed. The results demonstrate differences in sensitivity of Chironomus species and the need for a sediment contact bioassay, when estimating effects of aquatic sediment pollution on benthic communities.

Keywords: Contaminated Sediment; Bioassay; Chironomid Sp; Toxicity; Nutrient Composition; Growth


Authors: O Gulevich; L Volkomirskaya

Abstract: Non-invasive observation and control of groundwater location and condition continues to receive increasing attention because any impact on subsurface structure (i.e. drilling) may cause disastrous effects, including water contamination, riverbed changes, drainage, etc. The algorithms for the modeling of water contamination scattering are constructed to develop management strategies for groundwater contamination risks. This paper reviews an approach to monitoring the location of groundwater and water contamination based on the measurement of electrophysical parameters of underground layers using GROT 12 superpowerful monopulse georadars. Examples of groundwater detection in regions with varying subsurface geological structures are presented. Characteristics of the equipment used for determination of underground water inclusions at various depths are provided, and examples of ecological monitoring of water bodies for the control of fresh water pollution are presented.

Keywords: GPR; Georadar; Water table; Water pollution