Volume 2 Issue 3
Authors: Nikoleta Szabóová; Emília Smin?áková
Abstract: The following concentrations Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Cr, Cd, Pb and Hg are presented in this paper which were measured in six selected samples of rail bed materials from the region of the city Košice, Slovak Republic. The experimental part of the paper highlights the effect of the size of rail bed particles on the concentration of different pollutants in both aqueous solutions and dry matters. Due to these results, it can be clearly stated that decreasing the particles brings about the concentration increase of all observed elements in both aqueous solutions and dry matters. The particle sizes were in the range of 0 mm to 8 mm, from 0 to 32 mm and from 0 to 63 mm. Concerning the six analyzed samples, only one of them, taken from the rail switch, (particle size from 0 to 63 mm) is ecologically insufficient as in this given sample the concentration of Cr exceeded the limit by 5.312 mg/kg of dry matter. The measured value of Cr concentration was 255.312 mg/kg of dry matter and the threshold limit value according to the Methodical Instruction No.18/99 of the Ministry of Transport, Post and Telecommunication of Slovak Republic is 250 mg/kg of dry matter.
Keywords: Rail Bed; Pollutants; Ecological Assessment
Authors: Haitao Zhang; Menglan Duan; Mingchen Ni; Xianwei Hu
Abstract: Subsea production system, being of high value to deep water oil and gas production, has become more and more important recently. Simultaneously, issues related to its safety and reliability is hotly disputed by engineers and scholars. Based on fuzzy fault tree, risk analysis of oil and gas leakage is successfully completed. Through the construction of fault tree, qualitative analysis is conducted, obtaining minimum cut sets and cut-sets importance. Moreover, quantitative analysis, based on theory of fuzzy sets, is employed, through which we work out failure probability, probabilistic importance and critical importance. The above-mentioned results serve as a good reference to avoid oil and gas leakage in subsea production system.
Keywords: Subsea Production System; Oil/Gas Leakage; Risk Analysis; Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis; Fuzzy Set Theory
Authors: OYEDEPO Sunday Olayinka
Abstract: Energy is an important production factor and therefore should be managed in parallel with land, labor and capital. Energy resources and their utilization intimately relate to sustainable development. In attaining sustainable development, increasing the energy efficiencies of processes utilizing sustainable energy resources plays an important role. A sustainable energy system may be regarded as a cost-efficient, reliable, and environmentally friendly energy system that effectively utilizes local resources and networks. Energy efficiency and conservation measures have the potential to promote economic development, ensuring access to energy and can lead to job creation and saving of personal income. More also, energy efficiency will play a pivotal role in the mitigation of climate change. In Nigeria, up to half of the energy currently consumed can be saved in the country if energy is efficiently utilized. The major challenge has been that energy policy in Nigeria has undermined the importance and gains of energy efficiency to the environment and economic growth. This paper assesses possible ways to efficient energy utilization and conservation measures for sustainable energy development in economic sectors in Nigeria.
Keywords: Sustainable Energy; Sustainable Development; Energy; Efficient Energy; Energy Conservation
Authors: Y. B. Mathur; R. Singh; A. S. Jethoo; M. P. Poonia
Abstract: Diesel engines due to their inherent fuel economy, easy operation, low maintenance and long life, find wide uses in the field of transportation, construction equipments, marine and stationary applications such as water pumping, power generation etc. In agriculture sector, diesel engines are widely used in tractors, thrashers, pump sets and other farm machineries. Diesel engines are also extensively used in transport sector. In consideration of some typical characteristics such as high power generation, low specific fuel consumption, reliability and durability of diesel engines, diesel engines would continue to dominate our agricultural and transport sector. In the present study optimum compression ratio for variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with diesel fuel has been determined at 203 bars injector opening pressure , 23⁰ CA BTDC injection timing and at 1500 rev/min rated speed. The test results revealed that compression ratio 17 exhibited better performance and lower emissions and hence, was considered as optimum compression ratio.
Keywords: Variable Compression Ratio Engine; Compression Ratio; Injection Timing; Injector Needle Lift Pressure
Authors: Usman Ghani; Radmehr Monfared; Robert Harrison
Abstract: Manufacturing companies need greater capabilities to respond quicker to market dynamics and varying demands. Paradigms such as mass customization, global manufacturing operations and competition provide a platform to meet these needs. Therefore a continuous restructuring and re-engineering of the processes is seen in the manufacturing industries. This is extremely important in cases when automated machines are used in production. Automotive industry is an example of having intensive use of automated processes. During the reengineering of the processes it must be focused to control the factors which add cost during the processes. Energy is one of the important parameter which acts continuously over the process and increases the product price. Therefore, this paper proposes to validate the processes for energy optimization during the design stages well before, to physically build a machine. This could be done by using virtual environment and discrete event simulation integration. The pilot study of an ongoing research has been carried out to identify the level of energy consumption in a case study along with the identification of information to be used in the virtual tool prior to build the models. The adopted approach would propose to identify the processes to keep them off if consuming energy even in idle states. It could be identify through simulation that which one is the energy intensive process when they are idle, and then try it for the option, to keep it off when not working. Utilizing less energy in production helps society to have low cost products as well as to maintain the sustainable resources over a long period of time.
Keywords: Virtual Engineering (VE); Discrete Event Simulation (DES); Energy Consumptions; Real times Process; Integration
Authors: Navid Bin Sakhawat; Riasad Amin; Mahmudur Rahman; Dewan Mowdudur Rahman
Abstract: Our changing climate is placing our planet in peril. CO2 is the main green house gas emitted from various sources and power sector is solely responsible for 30% emission of CO2 throughout the world and this emission from power generation are projected to increase 46% by 2030. Fossil fuels had for so long been the most convenient and cheapest means of powering the world economy. But now they have been proved worthless to ensure energy security as 1.4 billion people have no access to electricity and world electricity demand is projected to grow by 2.2% per year between 2008 and 2035, from 16,819 TWh to about 30,300 TWh. It’s for sure that we cannot sustain a future, powered by a fuel which is rapidly disappearing. Nuclear energy would also not be a sustainable solution as it associates with some fatal risk. Therefore, renewable energy is the only viable option to ensure energy security in a sustainable way. It has no environmental degradation problem like fossil fuel and not associates with any radiation problem like nuclear energy. Most importantly renewable energy is abundant in nature, all we need is to just tap energy and transform. In this paper authors discussed about the risk from running out conventional energy and imposing threat to the human race and found out its solution by unearthing the real fact of renewable energy which will surely ensure sustainable development of civilization.
Keywords: Renewable Energy; Climate Change; Sustainable Solution; Energy Security; Conventional Energy